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Corresponding Wikipedia article: Sumer


The so-called Sumerians became known only since the XIX century thanks to the Jewish-British scientists, who persistently looked for their great ancestors and finally found them. The name of this people means "guards" (Hebrew: shomrim) as well as the name of the Jewish Samaritans. The following is known about Sumerians:

  • Sumerians were an isolated tribe with a scientific and a technical knowledge, which was outstanding among the neighbors and belonged to the Iron Age, which had began later.
  • Sumerians were suddenly disappeared along with their knowledge.
  • The ancient and medieval authors do not mention anything about any people like the Sumerians.
  • The lost Sumerian language was decrypted from the Babylonian cuneiforms, and it does not belong to any known language group including the Semitic. While all the ancient languages become a basis for the modern languages. For example, even the lost ancient Egyptian language was transformed into the Coptic language.
  • The linguists and the philologists noted a similarity of the Sumerian language and the Old Turkic languages. For example, a professor of the Semitic languages F. Hommel[1], and a Kazakh national writer Olzhas Suleimenov[2].
  • An ethnographer G.I. Pelikh[3] noted the similarities of the Sumerian and the Selkup ornaments. The Selkups are the Uralic Mongoloid people.
  • An archaeologist C.L. Woolley, one of the founders of the Sumerian history, had discovered the royal tombs of Ur dated the III millennium BC. The experts claimed that there were the things of the Arabic work made in the XIII century[4]

On the other side, the following is known about the Mongolian empire (rather the Turkic, see "Mongols"):

  • The conquest of the Arabic Near East, particularly Baghdad, in the XIII century.
  • Lack of a national writing and adoption of the writings of the conquered peoples.
  • The Turkic peoples adopted the religions (e.g. Islam) of the conquered peoples. Particularly Hulagu Khan, who had conquered Middle East, did not have a clear religious view.
Examples of the Sumerian and the modern Kazakh words, which are cognate
English Sumerian Kazakh
god dingir tenger (Mongolian)
father ada ata, dada
mother ama, (Inanna) ana
to give birth tu tuu
to live til tiri
a blow sag, sig sokky
a side šag šak
to hear geštu estu
you ze sen
that, this ne ana
get down tuš tusu
steppe, floor (in a tent) eden eden
oven, a fire udun ot
tree giš agaš
ten u on
Names of Akkadian and Sumerian gods
Akkadian Sumerian Description
Anu An God of heaven.
Ellil Enlil God of air.
Ea Enki God of water.
Ishtar Inanna Mother of gods (Turkic “ana”: mother).
Shamash Utu Shamash is the Semitic god of sun.
Utu is the Turkic god of a fire or a hearth.

The Sumerian phenomenon is explained as follows:

  • The Islamic Caliphate in Mesopotamia fell down after the Mongolian invasion. The religious freedom and diversity included the ancient Akkadian pagan cults. The Turks of the Mongol Empire was deprived of a clear writing system and a religion, and they had adopted these cults along with cuneiforms, in which was written a local dialect of the Old Turkic language on the traditional clay tablets.
  • Tamerlane (Timur) and his successors ceased the religious and political fragmentation of Middle East in the XIV-XV centuries. The Babylonian paganism was forgotten during the propagation of Islam.
  • Everything said about the Sumerians relates either to the ancient Semites or to the Turks of the Mongol Empire.

Babylon (Accadian: Babili, Sumerian: Kadingir) is the capital of Babylonia, one of the oldest kingdoms. This name means "Gate of God" (in the ancient Semitic: “bab-illu”). Babylon, Akkad and Assyria belong to the same ancient Semitic culture.


Biblical creation myth has the ancient origins
Enûma Eliš Genesis
When the heavens above did not exist,

And earth beneath had not come into being—
There was Apsû, the first in order, their begetter,
And demiurge Tia-mat, who gave birth to them all;
They had mingled their waters together…

(1:1) In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
Before meadow-land had coalesced and reed-bed was to he found —

When not one of the gods had been formed
Or had come into being, when no destinies had been decreed,
The gods were created within them:

(1:2) And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
Be-l rested, surveying the corpse,

In order to divide the lump by a clever scheme.
He split her into two like a dried fish:
One half of her he set up and stretched out as the heavens.
He stretched the skin and appointed a watch with the instruction not to let her waters escape.

[He set up] her crotch—it wedged up the heavens—
[(Thus) the half of her] he stretched out and made it firm as the earth.
[After] he had finished his work inside Tia-mat,
[He spread] his net and let it right out.
He surveyed the heavens and the earth . .
their bonds . . . . . . .

(1:6-8) And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.

And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

He fashioned heavenly stations for the great gods,
And set up constellations, the patterns of the stars.

He placed the heights (of heaven) in her (Tia-mat's) belly,
He created Nannar (Moon), entrusting to him the night.

After he had [ . . .
The watches of night and day.

(1:16-18) And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,
And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.

I will bring together blood [of Tia-mat] to form bone,

I will bring into being Lullû, whose name shall be 'man'.
I will create Lullû—man on whom the toil of the gods will be laid that they may rest.
I will skilfully alter the organization of the gods:

(2:7) And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
Biblical story of the flood also has the ancient roots
Epic of Gilgamesh (tablet 11) Genesis
O man of Shuruppak, son of Ubartutu:

Tear down the house and build a boat!
Покинь изобилье, заботься о жизни,
Abandon wealth and seek living beings!
Spurn possessions and keep alive living beings!
Make all living beings go up into the boat.
The boat which you are to build,
its dimensions must measure equal to each other:
its length must correspond to its width.
Roof it over like the Apsu!

(6:13-14) And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.

Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.

On the fifth day I laid out her exterior.

It was a field in area,
its walls were each 10 times 12 cubits in height,
the sides of its top were of equal length, 10 times 12 cubits each.
I laid out its (interior) structure and drew a picture of it (?).
I provided it with six decks,
thus dividing it into seven (levels).
The inside of it I divided into nine (compartments).
I drove plugs (to keep out) water in its middle part.
I saw to the punting poles and laid in what was necessary.

(6:15-16) And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.

A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.

Whatever I had I loaded on it:

whatever silver I had I loaded on it,
whatever gold I had I loaded on it.
All the living beings that I had I loaded on it,
I had all my kith and kin go up into the boat,
all the beasts and animals of the field and the craftsmen I had go up.

(6:19-21) And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female.

Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.
And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.

The sea calmed, fell still, the whirlwind (and) flood stopped up.

I looked around all day long–quiet had set in
and all the human beings had turned to clay!

(8:5-6) And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen.

And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made:

On Mt. Nimush the boat lodged firm,

Mt. Nimush held the boat, allowing no sway.

(8:4) And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.
When a seventh day arrived

I sent forth a dove and released it.
The dove went off, but came back to me;
no perch was visible so it circled back to me.
I sent forth a swallow and released it.
The swallow went off, but came back to me;
no perch was visible so it circled back to me.
I sent forth a raven and released it.
The raven went off, and saw the waters slither back.
It eats, it scratches, it bobs, but does not circle back to me.

(8:7-12) And he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth.

Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground;
But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark.
And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark;
And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth.
And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more.

I sacrificed: I offered a libation to the four corners of the world,

I burned incense in front of the rising mountain.
Seven and seven cult vessels I put in place,
and into the bowls I poured [the oil of] reeds, cedar, and myrtle.

(8:20) And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
The gods smelled the savor,

the gods smelled the sweet savor,
and collected like flies over a (sheep) sacrifice.

(8:21) And the Lord smelled a sweet savour; and the Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.

Mathematics and astronomy

The Babylonians used a complicated positional numeral system with two bases: 6 and 10. The today civilization has the following features due to it:

  • 360 = 6 x 6 x 10 angular degrees in a circle. The same number of days was in the Egyptian year.
  • 12 = 6 + 6 months of a year.
  • 60 = 6 x 10 half-days have a 30-day month.
  • 12 = 6 + 6 hours in a half-day.
  • 60 = 6 x 10 minutes in an angular degree, minutes in a hour, and seconds in a minute.
  • 12 = 6 + 6 = dozen = two halves of a dozen.

The numbers 12 and 60 instead of 10 (100) are convenient as the base, because they have many dividers: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30.

The Babylonian astronomy and mainly the astrology was converted into the Greek and the Arabic, and then into the European one. The most ancient astrological literature "Enuma Anu Enlil" was found just in Mesopotamia. The Babylonians used the concepts of the celestial sphere, the poles, the equator and the ecliptic. The celestial sphere was divided into the northern, central and southern segments, which were called the ways of gods Enlil, Anu and Ea.

The Babylonians gave names to the months and to the astrological signs. The Greek Zodiac (circle of animals) is descended from the Babylonian signs.

The Sumerians defined the period of Earth's axial precession as a 12 x 63 x 10 = 25920 years, which is divided into 12 periods of 2,160 years each, which are associated with the Zodiac signs. The modern astrologers call these periods eras (Pisces, Aquarius, etc.).

The Babylonian and Assyrian priests worshiped the sun and the planets end explained the rulers decisions by the will of gods. Since those times, the astrologists persuade that the stars influence the people's lives. The cult of the god-planets was converted into the pagan cults of Greece and Rome.

Divine stars
Assyrian and Babylonian Greek Roman
Shamash Helios Sol
Sin Selene Luna
Nergal Ares Mars
Nabu Hermes Mercury
Marduk Zeus Jupiter
Ishtar Aphrodite Venus
Ninurta Cronus Saturn

The week is a seven-day cycle, which corresponds to the biblical myth of creation. The meaning of the week a the Jewish commandment of the holy day of rest (Sabbath). The Russian word "niedielia" (week) is the name of the Western Slavonic Sunday derived from the phrase "nie delat’" (English: "not to do"), and the Germanic (German: woche, English: week) word is derived from the German "Wache" (a guard, a duty). The Jewish-Britich week starts on Sunday so that Saturday (Shabbat) is the seventh day according to the myth, and Wednesday is exactly the middle of a week. Sunday is the Christian holiday.

Creation of world Language
Italian / French German / English Slavonic
Day and night (Sun)

Morning is the Resurrection (Russian: Woskreshenye)

Domenica / Dimanche


Sonntag / Sunday


Woskresenye / N…d…l…


Lunedi / Lundi


Montag / Monday



(after week)

Land, herb Martedi / Mardi


Dienstag / Tuesday


(second day)
Stars, planets Mercoledi / Mercredi


Mittwoch / Wednesday

(middle / Wodan)

Fish, reptiles, birds Giovedi / Jeudi


Donnerstag / Thursday

(Thor, thunder)

(forth day)
Animals, humans Venerdi / Vendredi


Freitag / Friday


(fifth day)
Sacred holiday
Sabato / Samedi

(Shabbat / Saturn)

Samstag / Saturday



Chemistry and medicine

The ancient Semites and Egyptians knew the basics of chemistry and the chemical medicine (pharmacology), and then spread this knowledge around the world. The word "chemistry" has a Greek origin and comes from the name of Egypt, "Kemet". The Greek word "pharmakon" (remedy, poison) is derived from the Egyptian "witch's brew"[5].

The Babylonian medicine became the Arabic and then the European medicine in the Middle Ages. The Sumerian medical symbol was the tree with a snake, and the modern symbol is the bowl with a snake. The alcohol, which is used for a disinfection, had been produced by the medieval Arabs, and its name comes from the Arabic "al-kohl". The distilled beverages were spread thanks to the rubbing alcohol.

The ancient Semites believed in the sacred significance of the vegetable oils and resins. This was inherited by the modern religious rituals:

Name Ingredients Religious meaning
Frankincense (Hebrew: lebona, Arabic: luban, Latin: olibanum) The wood resins (11 components, according to Bible). A component of the incense, an offering to the gods (smoking) in Judaism.

The Christians burn the incense to banish the "evil spirits".

Myrrh (Hebrew: mor, Arabic: mur) The natural gum and a resin. Embalming of corpses. The relics of the saints and the mummies of the pharaohs.
Chrism Aromatic oil Gift of the Holy Spirit: "mark" of the Christian churches, the monarchs and the individuals received into church.
Holy anointing oil Vegetable oil (olive) The cure for diseases and sins.

Teraphim is a Babylonian mummy, a prototype of the Egyptian mummies and the Christian relics. According to the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: «Teraphim were made from the heads of slaughtered first born male adult humans, shaved, salted, spiced, with a golden plate placed under the tongue, and magic words engraved upon the plate».

The vegetable oil was unknown for the Indo-European peoples before the propagation of Christianity. Therefore, it is confused with petroleum in the Western languages, with the lubricating oil in every language, and also with butter in Russian.

The petroleum was known yet in Akkad. The Greek word "naphtha" and the Slavonic "naphta/nepht" comes from the Akkadian "napatum" (English: to burn).

Religion and politics

The Chaldeans (Hebrew: Kasdim) are the Babylonian priests (sorcerers, magicians), who played the role of the modern scientists and managers.

Ishtar (Sumerian: Inanna) is one of the main ancient Semitic goddesses. According to the myths, she features cunning and volatility. She is best known as the goddess of the carnal love, prostitution and homosexuality. She has the different names, from which the Jewish woman's name Esther is derived:

Language Name Comment
Sumerian Inanna
Akkadian Ishtar
Hebrew Ashtoret, Ester The Jewish holiday of Purim relates to the Old Testament story of the queen Esther and Persia (Book of Esther).
Astarte She is confused with the native Greek Aphrodite and Venus. The Western word "star" is derived from this name (Greek: asteri, Latin: astrum, German: Stern).
Russian Esfir The Old Slavonic word “ashter” means “lizard”.

Purim 1917 become the Women's Day on March 8.

Whore of Babylon is a biblical term related to the Persians and the Esther, Ishtar (see "Alexander the Great").

The sacred prostitution is a feature of the ancient Middle Eastern cults. This was a source of income for the temples.

The commodity-money relations were developed in Babylon since the beginning of the II millennium BC. The silver and the grain were used as a money. These relations implied all the elements of a parasitic economic system, which was propagated gradually over the world and had created the unlimited sources of income for certain people:

The mercenary army, as a part of the commodity-money relations, firstly appeared at the end of the Assyrian Empire.

Moloch (Akkadian: Adramelech, Hebrew: Melech, Phoenician: Melqart, Greek: Melikert) is a king (literally), a deity. The cult of Moloch is the ancient Semitic (particularly Hebrew) cult of the burnt offering (Greek: Holocaust). Gehenna is a pit for burning. Usually the children were executed. Usually children were executed. Some Biblical stories are related to the cult of Moloch:

The first royal law codes at the beginning of the II millennium BC (Eshnunna, Hammurabi) became the prototype for all the legal systems in the world. They had the typical elements:

  • The court as one of the main parts of the government.
  • The written decision of a judge, for which he is responsible.
  • The testimony, for which the witnesses are responsible.
  • The fines and the various executions as a punishment. The deprivation of liberty (slavery for the state) appeared later after the prohibition of slavery for the individuals.

The judicial system is not the only system of struggle against a crime, for example:

  • The ancient Egyptians believed in the afterlife judgement, and they desired its favorable outcome. This belief was expressed subsequently in one of the Christian commandments: "Judge not, that ye be not judged".
  • The archaic tribes usually expelled the harmful people from the tribe and left them to the mercy of fate.


  1. Hommel F. Zweihundert sumero-türkische Wortvergleichungen als Grundlage zu einem neuen Kapitel der Sprachwissenschaft. München, 1915, 32 S. (Als Manuskript vervielfältigt)
  2. Сулейменов Олжас. Аз и Я. Алма-Ата: ЖАЗУШЫ, 1975
  3. Пелих Г.И. Происхождение селькупов, Томский государственный университет, 1972
  4. L. Woolley, Ur of the Chaldees Ernest Benn Limited 1929, Penguin Books 1938, revised 1950, 1952
  5. Ернштедт П.В. Египетские заимствования в греческом языке. — М.-Л.: Издательство АН, 1953. — 208 с.

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