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Corresponding Wikipedia article: Islam

Hagar is a mythical ancestor of the Arabic tribes, the Egyptian concubine of Abraham, who gave him a son Ishmael, who also married an Egyptian woman. The Jews considered the Arabs to be less honorable due to the admixture of an Egyptian blood.

Islam ("submission" in Arabic) is a Semitic (Abrahamic) folk religion. It is especially popular in the Arabic-speaking countries in addition to the Arabian Peninsula. This doctrine is written in the Quran ("a reading" in Arabic) by the only prophet Muhammad, the same as the Avesta by Zoroaster. The Quran mentions Jesus (Arabic: Isa) respectfully but does not deify him.

Some outstanding features of Islam:

  • All the chapters of Quran are written at the same time (the VII century) with one style of a language, and they are not contradictory. The books of Bible were written at the different times by the different authors and are not the all-in-one doctrine.
  • Quran, unlike the Bible, is read rhythmically in Arabic like a poetry. This helps to memorize it by the keepers (hafizes). According to a legend, the Quran was written by its keepers after the oral presentation by Muhammad.
  • Quran does not define the original sin.
  • Quran does not propagate the racism and the nazism unlike the Old Testament (Tanakh), which indicates the various descendants of Adam and the chosen tribes of Israel among them. Muhammad is considered to be the descendant of Ishmael, so he is a relative of all the Arabs. In addition, the rulers (caliphs) of the vast Muslim majority (Sunnis) are not even the descendants of Muhammad.
  • Quran does not contain the Commandments for slaves like the Christian Commandments: «If someone hits you on the right cheek, let him hit you on the left cheek too», « And if anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, hand over your coat as well».
  • Quran forbids the interest on loans, and thus it does not allow the capitalism in its usual form.
  • Quran does not predict the future, because the exact prediction is impossible.

A few Islamic terms obviously has a Slavonic origin in the absence of the Arabic sounds like "e", "o", "y", "p", "ts", "tʃ":

Term Slavonic word Meaning Translation and comment
Muslim mysli… Muslim Thinking.
Salavat slavi… prayer The praise to God, but not a request, which is common for the Abrahamic religions.

The eastern Slavians have the “pravoslavnaia” (orthodox) faith.

Wudu woda ablution Water.
Hajj ho(zh)den… pilgrimage
Waqf wykup donation of a property to the community Redemption.
Zakat zatʃot the poor rate This payment is a sign of faithfulness.

The Sufism is a synthesis of Islam and Zoroastrianism, which was appeared in the VIII-IX centuries. It preaches the love to God instead of a fear of him. The dervish (Arabic: sufi) is a mixture of a Muslim and an Indian yogi, an ascetic, who do not possess any property. The dervishes often were the fakirs (magicians), who earned money by showing the focuses. The most famous followers of Sufism are:

  • al-Khwarizmi (the VIII-IX centuries) is a descendant of the Zoroastrian priests (magicians), a mathematician, an astronomer. He is a distributor of the Indian positional decimal numeral system with the "arabic" numerals in the Arab Caliphate. He is a founder of the algebra (Arabic: al-Jabr), who introduced a concept of the polynomials and the equations. The Leibniz later introduced the term, which denotes a method of calculating anything and originates from the Latin name of al-Khwarizmi: Algorismus, algorithm.
  • Omar Khayyam (the XI century) is a Persian poet, a mathematician (a follower of al-Khwarizmi), an astronomer. He gave some roots of the cubic equations. He had created a calendar, which is more precise than the modern Gregorian calendar (the XVI century), in which the 8 of each 33 years are the leap years, so the average duration of a year is 365,24(24) days.
  • Nizami Ganjavi (the XII century) is a Persian poet, who also made a contribution to the world culture.

The medieval books of the Indo-Iranian (Aryan) mathematicians on algebra were translated in Latin. This resulted in the development of the European mathematics, which grew up on the ancient geometry. The synthesis of algebra and geometry made the following: the analytic geometry of Descartes, the concept of negative and imaginary numbers, the logarithmic calculation, and finally, the calculus of Leibniz. Separation of the mathematics into the algebra (the numbers) and the geometry (the images) was established forever.

The Shiism (Shia) is a Persian (Iranian) branch of Islam in addition to the main Arabic branch (Sunni). The main difference between Sunni and Shia is: the Shia community leaders could be only the descendants of Muhammad.

The Sharia is the Islamic law, which is based on Quran. It is similar to the Jewish Halakha, which is based on Torah.

The Jihad is a struggle against the enemies of Islam: the human vices (sins) and their bearers (infidels). The armed struggle is a response to an external aggression.

The Arab Caliphate (the VII-XIII centuries) is the largest Muslim state known in the history, which had united together the whole Semitic world from Spain to Iran. The Rome (Israel) was under the Arabic threat and was retreating into the Northern Europe to strengthen there. The Christian kingdoms arose one after another.

The Council of Constantinople had anathematized the Muslim God (Allah) only in 1180 after the conquest of the Muslim Al-Quds (present-day Jerusalem) by the Crusaders. That is, the Islam was considered a branch of Christianity before this time due to the ignorance. The anathema reason was a denial of the God's birth (Nativity of Jesus), and also a translation of the Arabic word "samad" as "solid-forged" instead of "holistic" or "self-sufficient" [1]. Allegedly, the Muslim God is an iron idol.

The Islam is popular among the Turkic (Mongoloid) nations thanks to the conquest of the medieval Khwarezm, but the Islam was not so important for the Turkic governments. The famous conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) was raised by the Sufis, so he propagated the Islam in his empire.

The Sikhism is a synthesis of Islam and Hinduism, which arose in the times of the Empire of Timurids (Mughals). The Sikhs consider themselves a family, and they are named by the surname Singh.

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