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Corresponding Wikipedia article: Mongoloid
The Mongoloid race is a special type of people, who was formed in parallel with the Europeans. This name comes from the Mughals. The Indians called so their conquerors from Central Asia, and then the British colonizers of India learned and spread this name over the world. The sparsely populated northern part of the fallen Qing Empire was calledMongolia in the early XX century.
The racial feature, which distinguishes the Mongols from Aryans and Semites, is absence of any national gods except the nature spirits. For example, the ancient Chinese worshiped to the wisdom, and the Japanese worshiped to their ancestors and the nature spirits (Shinto). The Buddhism came from India and became a kind of the racial religion, because it has no the gods, but Buddha is only a human and a teacher. The Chinese adopted the atheistic Marxism in the XX century easily.
The historic region of the Mongoloids is Tibet, which was as a refuge during the last Flood. The nomadic tribes had spread from Tibet and China throughout the ancient world. China is a center of the Mongoloid civilization (see "China and Japan").
The Mongolian nomads inhabited Siberia in the ancient times, becoming Yakuts (Sakha) and other nations. The Mongols called the marshland with birches as "shibir". The Tatar word "seber" means "sweep out" and is associated with the Siberian blizzards. The Old Russian word "siver" and the Lithuanian «šiaur» means the cold wind. The Russian word "sever" (English: "North") corresponds to Siberia, because the original Russian homeland is somewhere between Siberia and India (see "Rus'").
The Silk Road is the oldest bridge between the Western and Eastern civilizations. It existed since the Roman times before the modern times with some interruptions. The northern part of this way helped to develop Central Asia due to the beneficial trade and the caravans maintenance. The nomads also could get good horses, which were transferred into China from the West, and they could become the good warriors on horseback.
The Xiongnu is a nomadic warlike people, who appeared almost simultaneously with the Silk Road within the present-day Mongolia. The Xiongnu fought against the civilized Chinese (Han) and migrated into two directions, producing the sedentary peoples:
- West. The Turkic peoples, who spread along a wide belt near the northern boundary of the Silk Road.
- Northwest. The Uralic peoples with some Mongoloid admixture: Nenets, Khanty, Mansi, Komi, Udmurts, Mari.
The Huns is the European common name of all the ancient nomadic peoples, who is somehow connected to the Xiongnu. The Northern Huns were not significantly different from the Scythians and the Eastern Slavians, so they are confused.
Attila (V century) is a well-known leader of the Huns from the Volga region. His name comes from Atil (Itil), which is a Turkic name of the Volga River. Attila had united the Slavonic and Germanic tribes with the Huns. And he became a legendary king of the Germans and Scandinavians under the name Etzel/Atli, which is mentioned in "Elder Edda" and "Song of the Nibelungs". The Greeks called him the ruler of all Scythia, and the Roman Christians called him the Scourge of God (Latin: Flagellum Dei). Attila's Huns had conquered Britain, Gaul (present-day France) and had weakened the Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire was then destroyed by the immediate Attila's successors. Bleda (Buda in Hungarian) is Attila’s brother, who founded the Hungarian Budapest.
The Hungarians (Ugric), who call themselves Magyars, are the distant relatives of Attila’s Huns mixed with the local Germanic-Slavonic population. The Germanic name Ungarn/Hungary has two roots: "hun-" and "-gar". The first root means "Huns", and the second one is common with the Bulgars' name. The Hussar is a descendant of an ancient medieval Hun, a noble horseback warrior in Hungary, then in Poland, and then in Russia since Peter the Great. The Hussars existed before the XX century.
The Bulgars (Balkars) is a tribe of Huns. The Volga River is a Bulgarian (“volgarian”) river. The Bulgars of Volga were named the Tatars in the times of USSR. The Southern Slavonic Bulgarians got their name after the Huns came into the Balkans and Hungary.
The Turkic languages are based on the Old Persian and the Uralic (Finno-Ugric). These languages were a lingua franca for the empires (from Attila to Genghis Khan), and they have a common basic vocabulary even in their modern forms (non-English words are written in Turkish alphabet):
|yellow||zard||sarı||sarı||sarı||şarga||Chinese symbol ("sarpa" (Sanskrit) is a serpent, "sárkány" (Hungarian) is a dragon).|
|song||jır||jırı||şarkı||Chinese language is singing.|
|beard||sakal||sakal||sakal||sakal||Saka are the white ancestors of the Turkic peoples.|
|hair||şaş, çaç||çeç, ses||saç|
|you (single)||sen, se||sin||sen|
|he, she||u||ol, a||ol||o||o|
|twin||egiz||igezek||ikiz||iker||Perhaps, Attila and Bleda were twins.|
|three||se||uş, uç||oç, os||üç|
|mother||ana, ene||ana, ine||ana||anya|
|a job||is, iş||eş||iş|
|hunger||aş, aç||açlık, aslık||açlık||ehşeg|
|to eat||je-, jeş-||aşa-||ye-||es-|
|a tip||uş||oç, os||uç|
|to drink||iş-, iç-||eç-, ese-||iç-||is-|
|water||su, suu||su, sıu||su||Chinese "shui".|
|sea||darya||teniz, deçiz||dingez||deniz||tenger||Caspian Sea is a holy gift (dar).|
|camel||tuye, teye||doya, doye||deve||teve||"Boat" of a desert.|
|to see||kara-, kor-||kara-||gör-|
|to sit||otır-, otur-||utır-, ultır-||otur-|
|marquee||şatır||satır||çadır||şator||Dwelling of nomads.|
|salt||tuz||tuz, toz||tuz||Rock salt.|
|a tooth||tis, tiş||teş||diş|
|sky, blue||kok||kuk||gök, –||eg, kek|
|new||(djaven)||jana, jacı||yana, yanı||yeni|
|to write||jaz-||yaz-, yazı-||yaz-||Green Quran.|
|summer||jaz, jay||jey, yey||yaz||Green summer.|
|a frog||baka||baka||kurbağa||beka||Ground frog in a garden.|
|bull||buka||boga||boğa||bika||Bull plows a garden.|
|сucurbita||askabak||kabak||kabak||Russian tavern "kabak".|
|a head||bas, baş||baş||baş|
|silver||kumiş, kumuş||komoş||gümüş||Silver sand.|
|copper||bakır||bakır||bakır||Copper-containing materials have a froggy color.|
The Huns and the ancient Turks had a pagan religion, which is unusual for the Mongoloids. It has developed under the Aryan influence. The pantheon of gods was headed by the supreme sky god "Tengri" or "Tenger" (from Chinese "Tiān": sky).
The Finno-Ugric peoples believed in the wise reptilian shapeshifters, who are the owners of gold and copper. So a Russian fairy tale "The Frog Princess" and an Ural tale about the "Mistress of the Copper Mountain" were born.
The Jewish merchants had a powerful influence on the Silk Road in spite of their small notability. The muslim merchant Ibn Khordadbeh (IX century) is a first writer about them. He called them the Radhanites (Hebrew: Radhanim, Arabic: ar-Razaniyya). The historians mention only that the Turkic elite was of the Jewish origin. The Jewish Khazar Khaganate tried to create the united Turkic Khaganate (VI century) after the fall of Rome. A khan is a Turkic ruler, who is subordinated to the great khan, Kagan or Kaan (Jewish Cohen, Kohen). The national Turkic ruler (head of a clan) is the Bek (Bey). The Russian word "kozyr-" (a trump suit) is derived from the ancient Russian "kozare" (Khazars).
The Pechenegs, Patzinaks (Arabic: Bajanak) are the Turkic nomads since the Khazar Khanate collapse. This name, as well as the Russian slang word "patzan" (a young guy), comes from the Ashkenazi Hebrew word “potz”, which was then transformed into Yiddish and English "putz".
The Chinese civilization area had reached its maximum by the XIII century. Western Liao or Kara-Khitan Khanate was formed in Central Asia. It was built by the Chinese model, so the Russian name of China ("Kitay") comes from the name of this khanate, which was located near Rus’. The Western names of China come from the Latin "Sinis", and the Chinese call their empire the "Middle Kingdom" ("zhong-guo"). One of the Kara-Khitan vassals was Khwarezm (former Persia).
Genghis Khan (XIII century) is the legendary Mongol Great ("Genghis") Khan and Khagan, who had united several separated Mongolic and Turkic tribes into the powerful empire, which had conquered Western Liao, Khwarezm and China. This empire bordered with India, Byzantium and Rus’. The personality and the detailed biography of this superhero is not reliably known, because even his tomb was not found as well as the tomb of Alexander the Great. Some known facts suggest an idea of the Mongol Empire origins:
- The whole world and the Mongols learned the Genghis Khan biography from a certain "Secret History", the Sino-Mongolian manuscript of which was found in China by the Archimandrite Palladius in the XIX century. The Mongols themselves had no any stories about their national hero.
- The main imperial language was the Turkic language but not the Mongolian language. That is why the Russian language has so many words of the Turkic origin. Name of the Mongolian capital Karakorum means "black stones" in Turkic.
- In the XII-XIII centuries, Central Asia was controlled by Western Liao (Kara-Khitan Khanate), a part of Chinese civilization. The Kara-Khitan government came from the present-day Mongolia land (Liao Empire), and this government was merged into the Mongol Empire, as it's known.
- Jamukha is a blood brother and an enemy of Temujin (Genghis Khan). Jamukha has a Kara-Khitan title Gurkhan (the chief Khan).
- The Chinese empires Liao and Song were united under the new Mongol emperors of the Yuan, and the unified empire began to grow.
- The Mongolian law code (Yassa) was organized by the Chinese model.
- The new nations had appeared along with new empire: the Turkic Kazakhs and the Slavonic Cossacks (“Kazak” in Russian). The Kazakhs (Cossacks) were the good warriors on horseback, and therefore they were a part of the elite, who lived in the center of Empire.
- Kazakhstan is a largest (by area) part of the modern Turkic world, the Mongol Empire residue, which is located almost on the Western Liao site. Kazakhstan is surrounded by the smaller remnants of the Empire: Kalmykia, Tatarstan (Bulgaria), Bashkortostan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan.
- Temujin (Genghis Khan) became a Khan at the kurultai of the Kazakh clans: Kiyat, Merkit, Jalair, Argyns. The descent from Genghis Khan ruled Kazakhstan before the XX century.
Also some known facts suggest the idea about the real founders of this Empire:
- The Khitans (Kara-khitans) are the Liao rulers of an unknown origin. The Khitan language considered obscure and dead.
- The Eastern Crusades of the Roman Church were at the same time, when the Mongol Empire was founded, and the Crusaders never conflicted with it (see also "Franco-Mongol alliance").
- The legend about the Central Asian or "Indian" Christian ruler Prester John (known in Rus’ as "tsar-pop Ivan") was spread around the world since the middle of XII century. These rumors were intensified after Genghis Khan came. The medieval chroniclers even considered the Mongols of Genghis Khan to be the Christians, but their opinion was refuted in the modern times.
- The word "Horde" indicates the Mongolian Ulus, it comes from the Latin "ordo" (order), and it does not have the Turkic roots. The "Order" is also the name of an European medieval organization, which owned land (Teutonic Order, Livonian Order).
- The word "Yassa", which means a set of the laws, is derived probably from the Latin "jussum" (an order, a judgment) and does not have the Turkic roots. They suggests the origin of this word as the Mongolian word "zasag", but how this juridical term came from the Mongolian nomads?
- The word "Darugha" means a region or its governor, who collect tribute. Obviously, it comes from the same Indo-European root as the Slavonic word "Druzhina".
- The Golden Horde as well as the Roman Church took a tithe from its subjects. The Christian clergy was free from this tribute (see "Mengu-Timur").
- The German Emperor Frederick II, enemy of the Pope Honorius III, was attacked by the Tatars (Mongols), and one of their captured commanders was an English Templar.
- The relations of Pope Honorius III with Genghis Khan are known: «Honorius III sent a special delegation to Genghis Khan's headquarters at the request of Mongols in 1217. It consisted of the commanders-Templars, the specialists in construction and destruction of fortresses, and the political representatives. The Genoese engineers taught the Mongols to build the siege machines. The Templars gave the lessons on command and control with a special emphasis on interaction of the archers and the heavy cavalry as well as the assault of the enemy fortifications».
- The Genoese infantry was participated on the Mamai side in the Battle of Kulikovo.
Also some known facts suggest the idea about the reasons of this empire:
- A Venetian merchant Marco Polo came easily into China through the renewed Silk Road immediately after the first Mongol invasion. This route was closed for the Europe after the fall of Rome and the conquest of Central Asia by the Persians and the Arabs. Genghis Khan has paved just this way, destroying the Persian-Arab civilization in this region.
- The Jewish communities and the trading colonies in China had reached its top during the Mongol Empire (Yuan dynasty), and they had disappeared shortly after the Mongol khans fall.
The Mongol Empire looks like a restoration of the Khazar Khaganate. The Kara-Khitan rulers were called the gurkhans instead of the khagans (Kohens). The Hebrew word "gur" means "baby of a beast".
Almost all the conquered peoples of the Mongol Empire were converted eventually to Islam: the religion of Arabs and Persians. However, religion and literature never played a big role in the Mongol-Tatars life. The writing system has been changed several times from Orkhon-Yenisey, Old Mongolian, Muslim Arabic to Latin (in Turkey) and the Cyrillic (in USSR and Mongolia).
Timur (Tamerlane) is a conqueror like Genghis Khan, his successor and his distant relative. Timur was raised by the Sufis, and Islam was propagated throughout the Turkic world because of this. Timur was born and buried in Central Asia unlike Genghis Khan (a Mongolian, according to his official biography).
The Uhlans are the elitist special purpose warriors on horseback in the European armies before XX century. This name comes from the Turkic word "oylan" (guys). The original uniform was Mongolian, and then only a square Kalmykian hat left.
- (Chinese chrestomathy by Vasily Vasilyev, Vol. I). See «Записки Вост. Отд. Имп. Русск. Археол. Общ.» (Vol. IV, 1889, p. 381)
- Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Jami' al-tawarikh, Vol. 2.
- Novgorod First Chronicle
- Ernest Lavisse, Alfred-Nicolas Rambaud History of the Crusades, Ch. 16
- Sidorov G.A. An enigma. Esoteric-chronological analysis of the development of modern civilization. Book 4., (Ch. 4), Kont͡septual, 2012 – ISBN 978-5-901838-81-5
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