Akhenaten and Moses
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As follows from the chapters "Adam" and "Sumerians", the opening chapters of the "Genesis" (Hebrew: Bereshit) are the Jewish folk tales based on the myths and legends of the Jewish ancestors. The Jewish nation was devoloped thanks to Egypt, particularly to the so-called Egyptian captivity, which os described in the biblical tale “Exodus" (Hebrew: Shmot).
The history of the ancient Jews is known not only from the biblical books, but also from the writings of a Roman Jew named Flavius Josephus (real name is Yosef ben Matityahu). His dating is not known precisely and his biography is questionable (see also "Rome and Israel"). The volume and the style of his works is rather relates to Renaissance than to Antiquity.
|Period||Manetho history||Official history||Comment|
|25||Tethtoosis||Ahmose I||Expulsion of the Hyksos.|
|13||Chebron||Thutmose I||Manetho swapped their places in time.|
|21||Amesses (sister of Amenophis)||Hatspepsut||This queen is not in the lists of Abydos and Saqqara.|
|9||Thmosis||Thutmose IV||Manetho swapped their places in time.|
|12||Acenchres (daughter of Orus)||(Akhenaten)||The historians had fitted the Akhenaten dynasty into the Manetho list. But the periods of reign do not match, and these kings are not in the lists of Abydos and Saqqara.|
|9||Rathotis (brother of Acenchres)||(Smenkhkare)|
|12||Acencheres (probably the same)||(Tutankhamun)|
|4||Armais||(Ay)||Priest Ay became a king by the will of the historians. He is not in the lists of Abydos and Saqqara.|
|60||Armesses Miammoun||Horemheb ?||Periods of the reign do not match. Swapping of places in time with Ramesses I. Armesses Miammoun is Ramesses II|
|19||Amenophis||Amenhotep IV ?||Only the Josephus history is known here. This king is not in the lists of Abydos and Saqqara.|
|Sethosis (Ramesses)||Seti I|
|Our people had come into Egypt, many ten thousands in number, and subdued its inhabitants. We went out of that country afterward, and settled in that country which is now called Judea, and there built Jerusalem and its temple.||Josephus believed that the Hyksos are the Jewish ancestors.|
|He [Manetho] mentions Amenophis, a fictitious king's name, though on that account he durst not set down the number of years of his reign, which yet he had accurately done as to the other kings he mentions; he then ascribes certain fabulous stories to this king, as having in a manner forgotten how he had already related that the departure of the shepherds for Jerusalem had been five hundred and eighteen years before.||Allegedly everyone departed forever.|
|Tethmosis was king when they went away.||Ahmose I.|
|When Manethe therefore had acknowledged that our forefathers were gone out of Egypt so many years ago, he introduces his fictitious king Amenophis, and says thus: "This king was desirous to become a spectator of the gods, as had Orus, one of his predecessors in that kingdom, desired the same before him; he also communicated that his desire to his namesake Amenophis, who was the son of Papis, and one that seemed to partake of a divine nature, both as to wisdom and the knowledge of futurities." Manethe adds, "how this namesake of his told him that he might see the gods, if he would clear the whole country of the lepers and of the other impure people; that the king was pleased with this injunction, and got together all that had any defect in their bodies out of Egypt; and that their number was eighty thousand; whom he sent to those quarries which are on the east side of the Nile, that they might work in them, and might be separated from the rest of the Egyptians." He says further, that "there were some of the learned priests that were polluted with the leprosy.||Biblical Egyptian captivity.|
|But that still this Amenophis, the wise man and the prophet, was afraid that the gods would be angry at him and at the king, if there should appear to have been violence offered them; who also added this further, [out of his sagacity about futurities,] that certain people would come to the assistance of these polluted wretches, and would conquer Egypt, and keep it in their possession thirteen years; that, however, he durst not tell the king of these things, but that he left a writing behind him about all those matters, and then slew himself, which made the king disconsolate.|
|After which he writes thus verbatim: "After those that were sent to work in the quarries had continued in that miserable state for a long while, the king was desired that he would set apart the city Avaris, which was then left desolate of the shepherds, for their habitation and protection; which desire he granted them. Now this city, according to the ancient theology, was Typho's city. But when these men were gotten into it, and found the place fit for a revolt, they appointed themselves a ruler out of the priests of Hellopolis, whose name was Osarsiph, and they took their oaths that they would be obedient to him in all things.|
|He then, in the first place, made this law for them, That they should neither worship the Egyptian gods, nor should abstain from any one of those sacred animals which they have in the highest esteem, but kill and destroy them all; that they should join themselves to nobody but to those that were of this confederacy. When he had made such laws as these, and many more such as were mainly opposite to the customs of the Egyptians, he gave order that they should use the multitude of the hands they had in building walls about their City, and make themselves ready for a war with king Amenophis.||Akhenaten's Religious Reforms.|
|He did himself take into his friendship the other priests, and those that were polluted with them, and sent ambassadors to those shepherds who had been driven out of the land by Tefilmosis to the city called Jerusalem; whereby he informed them of his own affairs, and of the state of those others that had been treated after such an ignominious manner, and desired that they would come with one consent to his assistance in this war against Egypt. He also promised that he would, in the first place, bring them back to their ancient city and country Avaris, and provide a plentiful maintenance for their multitude; that he would protect them and fight for them as occasion should require, and would easily reduce the country under their dominion. These shepherds were all very glad of this message, and came away with alacrity all together, being in number two hundred thousand men; and in a little time they came to Avaris.||New Egyptian government.|
|And now Amenophis the king of Egypt, upon his being informed of their invasion, was in great confusion, as calling to mind what Amenophis, the son of Papis, had foretold him; and, in the first place, he assembled the multitude of the Egyptians, and took counsel with their leaders, and sent for their sacred animals to him, especially for those that were principally worshipped in their temples, and gave a particular charge to the priests distinctly, that they should hide the images of their gods with the utmost care he also sent his son Sethos, who was also named Ramesses, from his father Rhampses, being but five years old, to a friend of his.||Sethos is Seti I, a son of Ramesses I (officially).|
|He [Amenophis] then passed on with the rest of the Egyptians, being three hundred thousand of the most warlike of them, against the enemy, who met them. Yet did he not join battle with them; but thinking that would be to fight against the gods, he returned back and came to Memphis, where he took Apis and the other sacred animals which he had sent for to him, and presently marched into Ethiopia, together with his whole army and multitude of Egyptians; for the king of Ethiopia was under an obligation to him, on which account he received him, and took care of all the multitude that was with him, while the country supplied all that was necessary for the food of the men. He also allotted cities and villages for this exile, that was to be from its beginning during those fatally determined thirteen years. Moreover, he pitched a camp for his Ethiopian army, as a guard to king Amenophis, upon the borders of Egypt. And this was the state of things in Ethiopia.||Egyptian government in exile.|
|But for the people of Jerusalem, when they came down together with the polluted Egyptians, they treated the men in such a barbarous manner, that those who saw how they subdued the forementioned country, and the horrid wickedness they were guilty of, thought it a most dreadful thing; for they did not only set the cities and villages on fire but were not satisfied till they had been guilty of sacrilege, and destroyed the images of the gods, and used them in roasting those sacred animals that used to be worshipped, and forced the priests and prophets to be the executioners and murderers of those animals, and then ejected them naked out of the country.||Religious reforms in action.|
|It was also reported that the priest, who ordained their polity and their laws, was by birth of Hellopolls, and his name Osarsiph, from Osyris, who was the god of Hellopolls; but that when he was gone over to these people, his name was changed, and he was called Moses»||Biblical story of Moses.|
|…after this, Amenophis returned back from Ethiopia with a great army, as did his son Ahampses with another army also, and that both of them joined battle with the shepherds and the polluted people, and beat them, and slew a great many of them, and pursued them to the bounds of Syria.|
Moses (Hebrew: Moshe; Arabic: Musa) is a Semitic name derived probably from the Egyptian word «msḥ» (a crocodile), as well as the word for a God's anointed: Messiah. The skin of lepers is very similar to a crocodile leather. Since the Middle Kingdom, the crocodile become one of the sacred animals, a deity Sobek. The crocodile is a reptile floating down a river, and the Biblical legend tells: the baby Moses was floating down the river in a basket and was rescued by an Egyptian queen (Hatshepsut?). A simple Hebrew verb "moshe" means a complex action: "rescue from water".
According to Bible, Avaris was built by Ramesses II the Great and named Pi-Ramesses (Exodus 1:8-14): «Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we: Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land. Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses. But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew. And they were grieved because of the children of Israel. And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour: And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in morter, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour».
|…The goddess Isis appeared to Amenophis in his sleep, and blamed him that her temple had been demolished in the war. But that Phritiphantes, the sacred scribe, said to him, that in case he would purge Egypt of the men that had pollutions upon them, he should be no longer troubled with such frightful apparitions.||…The people of the Jews being leprous and scabby, and subject to certain other kinds of distempers, in the days of Bocchoris, king of Egypt, they fled to the temples, and got their food there by begging: and as the numbers were very great that were fallen under these diseases, there arose a scarcity in Egypt. Hereupon Bocehoris, the king of Egypt, sent some to consult the oracle of [Jupiter] Hammon about his scarcity. The god's answer was this, that he must purge his temples of impure and impious men, by expelling them out of those temples into desert places; but as to the scabby and leprous people, he must drown them, and purge his temples, the sun having an indignation at these men being suffered to live; and by this means the land will bring forth its fruits.|
|That Amenophis accordingly chose out two hundred and fifty thousand of those that were thus diseased, and cast them out of the country.||Upon Bocchoris's having received these oracles, he called for their priests, and the attendants upon their altars, and ordered them to make a collection of the impure people, and to deliver them to the soldiers, to carry them away into the desert; but to take the leprous people, and wrap them in sheets of lead, and let them down into the sea. Hereupon the scabby and leprous people were drowned, and the rest were gotten together, and sent into desert places, in order to be exposed to destruction. In this case they assembled themselves together, and took counsel what they should do, and determined that, as the night was coming on, they should kindle fires and lamps, and keep watch; that they also should fast the next night, and propitiate the gods, in order to obtain deliverance from them.|
|…that Moses and Joseph were scribes, and Joseph was a sacred scribe; that their names were Egyptian originally; that of Moses had been Tisithen, and that of Joseph, Peteseph: that these two came to Pelusium, and lighted upon three hundred and eighty thousand that had been left there by Amenophis, he not being willing to carry them into Egypt; that these scribes made a league of friendship with them, and made with them an expedition against Egypt: that Amenophis could not sustain their attacks, but fled into Ethiopia, and left his wife with child behind him, who lay concealed in certain caverns, and there brought forth a son, whose name was Messene, and who, when he was grown up to man's estate, pursued the Jews into Syria, being about two hundred thousand, and then received his father Amenophis out of Ethiopia.||That on the next day there was one Moses, who advised them that they should venture upon a journey, and go along one road till they should come to places fit for habitation: that he charged them to have no kind regards for any man, nor give good counsel to any, but always to advise them for the worst; and to overturn all those temples and altars of the gods they should meet with: that the rest commended what he had said with one consent, and did what they had resolved on, and so traveled over the desert. But that the difficulties of the journey being over, they came to a country inhabited, and that there they abused the men, and plundered and burnt their temples; and then came into that land which is called Judea, and there they built a city, and dwelt therein, and that their city was named Hierosyla, from this their robbing of the temples; but that still, upon the success they had afterwards, they in time changed its denomination, that it might not be a reproach to them, and called the city Hierosolyma, and themselves Hierosolymites.|
Torah («The Five Books of Moses») pays much attention to the leprosy, and the first mention is related to Moses: (Exodus 4, 6-7) «And the LORD said furthermore unto him, Put now thine hand into thy bosom. And he put his hand into his bosom: and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous as snow. And he said, Put thine hand into thy bosom again. And he put his hand into his bosom again; and plucked it out of his bosom, and, behold, it was turned again as his other flesh».
The leprosy and other skin diseases were under the personal supervision of the priests, who performed the diagnostics. The whole two chapters of 27 chapters of the Book of Leviticus are devoted to the law on lepers and lousy. This law begins as follows (Leviticus 13: 1-3): «And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron, saying, When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, a scab, or bright spot, and it be in the skin of his flesh like the plague of leprosy; then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests. And the priest shall look on the plague in the skin of the flesh: and when the hair in the plague is turned white, and the plague in sight be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a plague of leprosy: and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean.»
The Slavonic word “prokaza” (English: leprosy) and possibly the disease itself came to Rus' after its christianization. Leprosy is a God’s punishment (Slavonic: …kaz..n…): (Numbers 12, 6-10) «And he said, Hear now my words: If there be a prophet among you, I the LORD will make myself known unto him in a vision, and will speak unto him in a dream. My servant Moses is not so, who is faithful in all mine house. With him will I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD shall he behold: wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against my servant Moses? And the anger of the LORD was kindled against them; and he departed. And the cloud departed from off the tabernacle; and, behold, Miriam became leprous, white as snow: and Aaron looked upon Miriam, and, behold, she was leprous»; (Deuteronomy 24, 8-9) «Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that thou observe diligently, and do according to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you: as I commanded them, so ye shall observe to do. Remember what the LORD thy God did unto Miriam by the way, after that ye were come forth out of Egypt».
The agreement (covenant) of the God with the people of Moses at the end of Torah: (Deuteronomy 28: 1-2) «And it shall come to pass, if thou shalt hearken diligently unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe and to do all his commandments which I command thee this day, that the LORD thy God will set thee on high above all nations of the earth. And all these blessings shall come on thee, and overtake thee, if thou shalt hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God»; (Deuteronomy 28, 15) «But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee»; (Deuteronomy 28, 27) «The LORD will smite thee with the botch of Egypt, and with the emerods, and with the scab, and with the itch, whereof thou canst not be healed.»
The biblical Moses led his people through a desert for 40 years. A generation had changed during this time, and also the leprosy is little contagious and not hereditary. Thus, a quite healthy people had formed.
Aten is a name of the single Semitic god called "Adon" (English: Lord) in Hebrew. The Torah and the Jewish Old Testament (Tanakh) refer to it in the plural "Adonai" (English: Lords) as well as Elohim. The Adonai emerges in the Exodus along with Moses replacing the old name of Elohim. The Bible in translation for the European nations calls the God only the Lord (Latin: Dominus).
|Atenism||Ancient Egyptian cults|
|Type of religion||Monotheism (feature of a Semitic religion)||Polytheism (pagan and folk beliefs)|
|Concept of God||Creator of the world||Ancestor of kings|
|Role of the king||Representative of God||Descendant of gods|
|Role of the high priests||Servants or slaves of God||Rulers|
Aaron (Arabic: Harun) is a Levite, the brother of Moses, the founder of the high priests tribe: Kohen/Cohen/Kagan. The Aaron’s name comes from the Hebrew word “light” and indicates the enlightening. A Jewish Rabbi is a scholar, but not a high priest.
Akhenaten (Akn-n-Yati: effective for Aten) is a high priest of Aten, who is added to the XVIII dynasty together with his successors. Akhenaten and his main wife Nefertiti (Naf-Nafru-Yati: perfect beauty of Aten) were not the ordinary humans biologically.
Statue of Akhenaten
Statue of Nefertiti
Picture of their daughters
They were the quite healthy people who had the viable offspring despite their apparent pathology.
Tutankhamun is a son of Akhenaten, who was orginally named Tutankhaten (Tut-Ankh-Yati: living image of Aten).
|Reconstruction of the Tutankhamun appearance||The fetus mummy of a daughter of Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun||Corpse of a fantastic "alien"|
The growing human embryo passes the stages of development in the shape of its evolutionary ancestors. Embryos of the ordinary people at the last stages (more than 30 cm tall, according to the photo) are similar to the ordinary people but not the "aliens".
Akhenaten had built for himself and his entourage the city of Akhetaten (Akh-Yati: Dawn of Aten), the ruins of which were found occasionally near the village of Tell el-Amarna. This city was destroyed by the Egyptians after Akhenaten, and this was one of the first anti-Jewish riots (Russian: pogrom). The Amarna letters were found in these ruins, the clay tablets with the Akkadian cuneiform.
The Jews became widely known since their exodus from Egypt. Eber is the mythical Jewish patriarch. One of the meanings of the Hebrew root "avar/eber" is a crossing, a passing through. The Jews became the colonizers of the world, who crossed the borders of Egypt and Assyria. According to Bible, the exodus followed after the environmental disaster caused by the poisoning of Nile in order to punish the Pharaoh:
- Poisoning: (Exodus 7:19-21) «And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of water, that they may become blood; and that there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone. And Moses and Aaron did so, as the LORD commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood. And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt».
- Death of fish, which eats the frogs spawn, resulted in the proliferation of frogs: (Exodus 8:5) «And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch forth thine hand with thy rod over the streams, over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt».
- Death of frogs, which eat lice, resulted in the proliferation of lice: (Exodus 8:16) «And the LORD said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt».
- Lice had spread the infectious diseases: (Exodus 9:8-9) «And the LORD said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh. And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt».
This explains the spread of leprosy, which caused the exodus.
The Aegean island of Thira (Thera) with volcano of Santorini is the biblical mount Paran. This volcano caused the strongest tsunami and the subsequent destruction of the Minoan civilization (which was bound with Egypt) during the exodus (the II millennium BC). (Deuteronomy 33:2) «And he said, The LORD came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them». This event is related to some biblical legends:
- Eruption of volcano: (Exodus 9:23-24) «And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt. So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation».
- Cloud of a volcanic ash: (Exodus 10:22-23) «And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days: They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings».
- Tide before a tsunami wave: (Exodus 14:19-31), the passing of Israelites through the sea and the Egyptian army death.
Thus, the biblical Yam Suph ("sea of reeds" in Hebrew) has more to do with the Black Sea than with the Red Sea, which in those days was not bound by the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean Sea, where the tsunami happened. Probably, this is the Sea of Marmara with the narrow straits of Dardanelles and Bosphorus surrounded by the small lakes and rivers, where the reeds could grow. The Semitic world and the sphere of influence of the ancient Egypt in its heyday reached the Hittite Kingdom in Asia Minor, so the ancient Egyptian border was not the same as a border of the modern Egypt. The desert, through which Moses led his people, is the uncivilized Europe without the large cities and the well-developed trade.
Jordan is a mythical river, through which the Jews passed, and which binds two seas. The Palestinian Jordan River is a narrow shallow river, which binds the Lake Tiberias (Chinnereth, Sea of Galilee) and the Dead Sea. The biblical Jordan River is a wide deep strait, which binds the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea are the most salt in the world after the Dead Sea and the Red Sea, so the Aegean Sea represents the biblical Salt Sea.
The Mount Horeb (Sinai) is the Croatian mountains, the Bosnian pyramids. The modern Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatska) is located at the center of propagation of the haplogroup I-M170, which is close to the Semitic haplogroup J-P209. The Byzantines of the X century mentioned "White Croats". Probably, they were the remained ancient Slavonic tribes.
The Commandments of Moses are the basic laws (covenant) based on the ancient Egyptian doctrine of Maat (see "Egypt"). The lost Tablets of Stone inside the special Ark of the Covenant is a Jewish holy relic, the analogue of the Egyptian Emerald Tablets of Thoth the Atlantean. According to an Ethiopian legend, the Ark was taken to the Ethiopian town of Axum in the days of King Solomon and kept in the Cathedral of St Mary of Zion.
The Pesach (Passover) is the main Jewish holiday associated with exodus from Egypt, from which the Christian Easter had originated later. This name really comes from the Hebrew word "passed" and is related to the execution of firstborn, which allegedly miraculously bypassed the Jews. Such execution is also known as the "Massacre of the Innocents" by King Herod. Moses had banned the cult of Moloch, which was common among the Semites (the ancient Jews in particular) as known from the legend about Binding of Isaac. The quote (Numbers 18:15-16): «Every thing that openeth the matrix in all flesh, which they bring unto the LORD, whether it be of men or beasts, shall be thine: nevertheless the firstborn of man shalt thou surely redeem, and the firstling of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem. And those that are to be redeemed from a month old shalt thou redeem, according to thine estimation, for the money of five shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, which is twenty gerahs».
Joshua (Arabic: Yusha ibn Nun) is a successor of the biblical Moses. He had destroyed many cities with their population to free the land for the Jews. He had captured the ancient fortress of Jericho using allegedly some magic trumpets. The modern excavations of Jericho showed that its walls are really collapsed in an unusual way like because of an earthquake. The earthquakes are usual for that place (Qumran, 31 BC; Jericho, 1927).
- Flavius Josephus, Against Apion, Book 1
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