Slavonic and Germanic peoples

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Corresponding Wikipedia article: Slavs, Germanic peoples

The ancient Slavian ancestors were the nomadic tribes, who settled in the area from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. They took part in spreading of the Indo-European language over Eurasia. The Slovenes (Slavians, Slavs) are a people of the 'word' (Russian: “slovo”). The Slavonic writing system was formed very late under the neighboring peoples influence. The Slavians came to Western Europe at the late II millennium BC. The ancient Greeks knew them as the Scythians, and the Romans knew them as the Etruscans. An Italian historian of the Croatian origin Mavro Orbini, who read the medieval books, believed that whole the ancient Europe was populated by the Slavians[1].

Map of the Urnfield culture
Objects of the Urnfield culture

First massive settlements of the Western Slavians correspond to the Urnfield archaeological culture of the Iron Age. The dead were cremated by the Aryan traditions, and their ashes were placed into the urns. The tribes settled along the river valleys, which were the affordable means of transportation and the food source. The supposed prehistoric tribes settlement within the Western Europe was the following:

Slavs en.png

Tribe Name of river or place Comments
Slavonic Germanic/
Obodrites Odra Oder
Polabi Laba, Labe Elbe
Rani, Rujani Ruyana? Runa? Rana? Rhine They migrated into the east and gave their land to Celts and Germans.
Lutici Lutetia (Paris),
They migrated into the east and gave their land to Celts and Romans.
Veneti, Wends, Vandals, Antes Vienna (Vindobona)
They migrated into the north and gave their land to Romans.

When the Rome arose, and the Celts and Germans were strengthened at the middle of I millennium BC, the Western Slavians were driven into the area of present-day Poland, Czech Republic and East Germany, representing the Lusatian archaeological culture, which is a part of the Urnfield culture.

The Thracians are the Slavians, who lived mainly within the modern Bulgaria area. Thrace became a Roman colony and the Thracian language was influenced by Latin, so the linguists consider it similar to the Latvian. Phrygians are Thracians of Asia Minor. A Greek poet Xenophanes describes the Thracians appearance: «...Men make gods in their own image; those of the Ethiopians are black and snub-nosed, those of the Thracians have blue eyes and blond/red hair».

Veneti is a people, who, according to an Etruscan legend, was ruled by Aeneas and had came at the antiquity dawn from Asia Minor into the present-day Italy, particularly into Veneto. Also the name of Russia in the modern Finnish is Venäjä.

Names of the rivers Don, Dnieper, Dniester and Danube are derived from the same Slavonic root “dno” ("bottom" in English), relating in this case to a valley and a river watercourse. The Southern Slavians settled beside these rivers and had formed the medieval Kievan Rus’ (Rus’ Khaganate).

The Pomors is a common name of the Northern Slavians, who were also called the Fomorians in the Irish mythology. Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze, German: Pommern) is the present-day Polish and German part of the Pomors' land. Name of this people and their land comes from the word "sea" (Polish: morze, German: Meer). The former Prussia (German: Preußen) is located on the former Pomors land, and this is the land of Prussians, who live "beside russians". The following rivers flow in the former Pomors land: Saale (Slavonic: Sala), Trave (Slavonic: Travena means “grass”), Warnow (Slavonic: Voroni means “crows”). The Russian Pomors are now concentrated in the Arkhangelsk region, from which, for example, M. Lomonosov is originated.

The names of some major North-Eastern German cities and also the small villages are derived from the former Slavonic settlements, for example: Burg Stargard (Slavonic: Stargart means “old town”), Lübeck (Slavonic: Liubice means “lovely”), Wismar (Slavonic: Wysze-mir means “high…”), Schwerin (Slavonic: Zwierzyn means “beastial”), Radegast (Slavonic deity), Ratzeburg (Slavonic: Ratibor means “warrior”), Rostock (Slavonic meaning is “broadening of a river”), Leipzig (Slavonic: Lipsk means “linden town”). The Dresden name comes from the Slavonic "drežďany": the forest dwellers. Silesia was behind (Slavonic: za) the Dresden forest (Slavonic: las/les).

The Krivichs (literally “curved”) are the "kinky" speaking latinized Baltic Slavians. The present-day Latvians and Lithuanians are a mix of the North-Western Slavians and the Finno-Ugric people (Sami). Latvians are calling the Russians "krievs" in turn.

The Polans is a tribe, which name is derived from the old Slavonic "polon" (English: "prison"). This was a name of the present-day Poles (the western Polans captured by Romans), and the eastern Polans of the Rus’ Khaganate.

The Serbs (from Latin "servus": a servant, a slave) are the Lusatian Slavians, who lived within the Roman colonies of Balkans and within the present-day Eastern Germany. The German placename "Zerbst" means Serbian.

Generally, the Slavians were perceived by Rome as the slaves. The Arabic slavers called the Eastern European people as “saqaliba”, “saqlab”. Hence the similarity of words "slave" and "Slav/Slavian" in Latin and other Western non-Slavic languages arose:

language slave Slavian
Latin sclavus Slavicis
French esclаve slave
Spanish esclavo eslavo
German sclavin Slawe

The Celts, Gauls (from the Greek "gala": milk) is a common Greek-Roman name of the white-skinned barbarians, who were neither Slavians nor Germans (Goths). In the ancient times, the celts lived in almost all the lands to the west of the Slavonic and Germanic lands. After many wars with each other and with the Rome, the Celts made up the provincial population of the Roman Empire. The ancient Celts were featured by a red hair, which is an admixture of the Neanderthals. Some modern descendants of the ancient Celts are the Irish and Scots.

The Druids ("TRee WIzarDS") are the Celtic priests, due to which the English word "true” resembles the "tree”. The tree was sacred for many ancient peoples, in particular for the Jews (tree of the knowledge). The divination and prediction, using the unique horoscope, is a typical Near Eastern tradition also. Thr Milesians (Goidels) are the last mythical rulers of Ireland, who came from Egypt through Crete (Greece), Sicily and Spain, and who are apparently the Jews. The Celtic late autumn festivals have the Jewish roots really:

Celtic festival Jewish holiday Common features
Samhain Sukkot Harvest, seven days
Halloween (Hallelujah ?) Yom Kippur New year

The Boii are the eastern Celts or the western Slavians, the "fighters" (Slavonic “boj” means fight) against the Romans. Bohemia (Latin: Boiohaemum) is the Boii native land, where is the Czech Republic now. Bavaria is a former joint land of the Boii and the Avars.

The Lombards (Langobards) are the "long-bearded" fighters against the Romans. The beard is a typical feature of the white race.

Thr Germans (Goths) is a nation, which is mixed of the Celtic and Slavonic tribes. Therefore, the ancient Germans were both red-haired and fair-haired. The Germans were formed for centuries under the Roman influence as a population of the empire (Reich), which is headed by a king (Rex, -reh, -rih).

Name of a German in different languages
Language Name Comments
German deutsche «Dutch», «Danish».
Latin german Known Gothic leader Ermanaric (IV century). "Herr" is "Sir".
Italian tedesco Theoderic the Great (Latin: Flavius Theodericus).
aleman Germanic tribes Alemanni ("all men") made up the present-day Germany, and the Franks occupied the present-day France.
Slavonic niemiec As the Slavonic lands became occupied by Reich, their population became "niemci" from the words "nie my" (English: "not we") and "niemy" (English: "mute"), that is they do not speak Slavonic.

The Gothic Bible is one of the world's oldest Bible translations from Greek, and this is a Gothic literary language carrier.

The Semitic borrowings in the basic dictionary shows the Germans' role within the Roman Empire (to be poor, to hunt, to break foreign, and to build own):

Role Semitic root Modern German word
Poor (bare) ?-r-i arm (poor), Armee (army)
Jäger r-w-h (air)
r-i-h (smell)
Ruhe (silence),
riechen (to smell), Geruch (a smell), Rauch (a smoke)
Soldier k-r-b Krieg (war), Kraft (force)
Builder b-n-h bauen (build), Bau (a building), Bahn (road), Baum (tree), Bauer (peasant),
Bund (union)

The soldier is a German word of the Latin origin from the name of a coin Solidus (Soldo) or a salt, which were paid to the Roman warriors. So the purely German verb "sollen" (shall) came.

The machine (German: Maschine) and mechanics (German: Mechanik) is the words, which are derived from the Indo-European root "M-H/G", which denotes the might and magic. The mechanics and the mechanical engineering (German: Maschinenbau) is a foundation of the German and the whole Western philosophy. The wheel is a fundamental mechanism (see «Aryans»).

The historic German center is the Rhine sources near Swabia and the present-day Switzerland near the Ancient Rome. The prehistoric Germans went down the Rhine, had displaced the Rani (Rujani) to the east, had crossed the sea, and had reached the Scandinavian Peninsula, populating it by the ancestors of the warlike Vikings and Normans in addition to the Sami (Finno-Ugric) people. The names Switzerland, Swabia, Sweden and Suebi (Suevi) are derived from the same root. The Roman colonizers had founded 2 thousand years ago the cities on the Rhine and its tributaries: Trier, Cologne (colony), Nijmegen, etc.

Sweden is a center of the "non-Aryan" haplogroup I-M170, which is a feature of the Southern Slavians also, especially the Croats. This haplogroup correlates to the Near Eastern haplogroup J-P209 and confirms the southern origin of the ancient Germans and Swedes. The soft 'R' of the French and the Germanic peoples is a Jewish feature.

The Teutons (Latin: teutoni) are the medieval colonizers of the Eastern Europe. Their name comes from the Greek "tauto" ("the same”). The Teutons were the same as the Romans, and they were creating the Holy Roman Empire.

Brandenburg is a place of the medieval combat (Western Slavonic “branit/bronic” means “to defend”, Slavonic “bor” means the “pine forest”) between Teutons and Slavians. There are the cities: Zossen (Slavonic: "sosni" means the pines), Potsdam (Slavonic: "Podstupim" means the “approaches”). Cölln (today Berlin) is a Teuton-Roman "colony". Berlin is the "bear lair” from the German "Bär" (bear) and "liegen" (to lie). Albert the Bear is the colonizer of Brandenburg.

The last fortress of the Rani was captured by the Roman-German colonizers only in the XII century. This was Arkona on the island of Rujan (German: Rügen), which is popularly named Buyan and mentioned in "The Tale of Tsar Saltan".

The Germanic nation is the pivotal nation of the modern Western Europe, and the Slavians is the pivotal nation of the modern Eastern Europe.

The German language has many dialects because of the long complicated formation of the German nation. The standard German language is an artificial mixture of these dialects.

The modern Slavonic and Germanic languages are derived from the common ancient roots, and they have many consonant words of the same meanings (Russian is written in Polish alphabet for comparison):

Slavonic Germanic Topic
Russian Polish German Swedish English
da tak ja ja yes
niet nie nein nej no
otwiet odpowiedź Antwort svar answer
(s-)pros-ić pros-ić frag-en fråg-a (to ask)
dwa dwóch zwei två two
tri trzy drei tre three
szesć sześć sechs sex six
siem siedem sieben syv seven
tysiacza tysiąc tausend tusen thousand
swoj, siebia swój, się selbst, sich själv self
to że samoje tak samo samma same
para para Paar par pair
pierw-yj pierwsz-y erste första first
(po-)wtor-ić powtórz-yć wieder to iterate
piere- prze- über- över- over-
p(ie)ried- przed- -vor- -för- -fore-
do do zu till to
iz, ot z, od aus hos, ut of, out
nas nas uns oss us
jemu mu ihm honom him
ty ty du du you
moj mój mein min my
prijatiel przyjaciel Freund vän friend
dom dom Heim hem home life
chata chata Hütte hut hut
dwier drzwi Tür dörr door
klucz klucz Schlüssel clue, key
zapier-ieć sperr-en spärr-a (to lock)
sber-ieć spar-en spar-a to save
ogorod ogród Garten gården, gård garden, yard
sierdce serce Herz hjärta heart
lub-ić lub-ić lieb-en to love
(briemia) gebär-en bär-a to bear
mat, matier- matka Mutter moder mother
wdowa wdowa Witwe widow
batia, papa papa Vater pappa father
swiokor, swiokrow Schwiegervater,
czado Kind child
syn syn Sohn son son
docz, doczer- Tochter dotter daughter
siestra siostra Schwester syster sister
brat brat Bruder broder brother
boroda broda Bart beard
nos nos Nase näsa nose
rasa rasa Rasse ras race
ludi ludzie Leute (people)
gosć gość Gast gäst guest lifestyle
kuchnia kuchnia Küche kök kitchen
sid-ieć siedz-ieć sitz-en sitt-a to sit
je-sć je-ść ess-en ät-a to eat
jajco jajko Ei ägg egg
korowa krowa Kuh ko cow
żiew-ać żuć to chew
moloko (mleko-) mleka Milch mjölk milk
riepa rzepa Rübe rova (turnip)
jabloko jabłko Apfel äpple apple
gus gęś Gans gås goose
miaso mięso meat
ploć Fleisch flesh
plamia płomień Flamme flamma flame
ogoń (Eng: fire) Ofen ugn oven
pieć, piek- pi-ec back-en bak-a to bake
(-, buryj)
warz-yć brau-en
(Bier, braun)
brygg-a to brew
(beer, brown)
woda wody Wasser vatten water
bania, wanna Bad bad bath
wino wina Wein vin wine
swinja świnia Schwein (pig)
kot kot Katze katt cat
mysz mysz Maus mus mouse
rabota Arbeit arbete labor labor
polie pole Feld fält field
puć Pfad path
plug pług Pflug plog a plow
sie-jać si-ać sä-en to sow
sad-ić (siemia) setz-en (samen) seed-a seed
zierno (korień) ziarno (korzeń) Korn korn corn
roż Roggen råg rye
(a spring cereal)
Jahr år year
wiej-ać wi-ać weh-en to waft
mol-oć, miel- ml-eć mahl-en to mill
muka mąki Mehl mjöl meal
pas-ti paść pasture
pit-ać füttern foder to feed
szkura skora Skin skal skin
sz-ić sz-yć sy to sew
kliej-ić kle-ić kleb-en klistr-a to glue
glina glina clay
budu-wati (Ukr.) bud-ować bau-en bygg-a to build
mal-ewati (Ukr.),
mal-en mål-a,
(to draw)
ugol' węgiel Kohle kol coal
plośćad plac Platz plats place trade
prob-ować prób-ować probier-en prov-a to probe
prower-ić, swer-ić zweryfik-ować erprob-en prov-a, verifier-a to prove, verify
smak smak Geschmack smak
god-nyj gut god good
mier-ić mierz-yć mess-en mät-a to measure
dolg-ij dług-i lange lång long
korotk-ij krótk-i kurz kort short
wies waga Gewicht vikt weight
liogk-ij łatw-y leicht lätt light
grub-yj zgrubn-y grob grov rough, rude
gladk-ij gładk-i glatt glatt (smooth)
tonk-ij cienk-i dünn tunn thin
now-yj now-y neu nya new
lg-ać, lż- łg-ać lüg-en lögn to lie
kup-ić kup-ować kauf-en köp (to buy)
na-klad-ywać ład-ować lad-en ladd-a to load
poln-yj pełn-y voll full full
korob, korzina koszyk Korb (basket)
sladk-ij słodk-i süß söt sweet sex
liz-ać liz-ać leck-en slick-a to lick
sos-ać ss-ać saug-en sug-a to suck
titka, siska cycek Titte, Zitze tutte tit
nag-oj nag-i nackt naken naked
sram Scham skam shame
drazn-ić, drocz-ić dręcz-yć reiz-en to tease
ston-ać stękn-ąć stöhn-en stön-a (to moan)
kricz-ać krzycz-eć schrei-en skri-a to scream, cry
wojna wojny war war
granica granica Grenze gränsen (frontier)
kniaz König konung, kung king, knight
rycar rycerz Ritter, Reiter riddare, ryttare rider
bić bić to beat
śćit Schild sköld shield
wz-iać wzi-ąć fass-en fatt-a (to catch)
wiaz-ać wiąz-ać festmach-en fast to fasten
skrucz-iwać śrub-ować schraub-en scruv-a to screw
grob grób Grab grav grave
grab-ić grab-ić greif-en grip-a to grab
diel-ić dziel-ić teil-en del-a (to divide)
liecz-ić wylecz-yć läk-a leigheas (Irish)
drozd drozd Drossel trast thrush nature
bobr bóbr Biber bäver beaver
wolk wilk Wolf wolf
gniezdo gniazdo Nest näste nest
żoli-yj, żieltok żółt-y, żółtko gelb, Eigelb gul, äggula yellow, yolk
zoloto złoto Gold guld gold
dieriewo drzewo Dorf
träd tree
kora, skorlupa skorupa Kruste skorpa crust
bierioza brzozowy Birke björk birch
buk buk Buche bok beech
lipa lipa Linde linden, lime
jasień jesion Asche aska ash
riabina jarzębina rönn rowan
riab rippel a ripple
wolna fala Welle våg a wave
morie morze Meer môr (Welsh)
dolina dolina Tal dal dale
solnce słońce Sonne sol sun
dień dzień Tag dag day
nocz noc Nacht natt night
oblako obłok Wolke (a cloud)
cholod(-nyj) chłód(-ny) kälte köld cold
snieg śnieg Schnee snö a snow
wietier wiatr Wind vind a wind
wichr' wir Wirbel virvel a whirl
prawo prawo recht rätt right direction
liewo lewo links left
kriw-oj krzyw-ej kurve kurva curve
wostok Ost öst east
śćeka cheek body parts
brow' brew Augenbraue ögonbryn (eye-)brow
oko oko Auge öga eye
zub ząb Zahn (tooth)
ucho ucho Ohr öra ear
gorlo gardło gorge
piata Fuß fot foot
liażka lägg leg
riebro żebro Rippe revben rib
nogoć Nagel nagel nail
kolieno kolano Knie knä knee
kolokol =
circle (KOLO) +
mallet (KOL)
Glocke klocka (clock) cult
krug krąg Kreis krets a ring
krest krzyż Kreuz kors a cross
wolia wola Wille vilja will other
nado nötig nöd need
nynie nun nu now
diej-ać tun do
stara-ćsia star-ać się streb-en sträv-a to strive
ciel cel Ziel (a target)
strog-ij srog-i streng sträng strict
(ot-, pri-) nim-ać nehm-en (to take)
jun-yj jung unga young
wied-ać wiedz-ieć wiss-en vet-a (to know)
wieść-ij weise vis wise
wiern-yj wiern-y wahr, wirklich verklig yn wir (Welsh)
mn-ić mein-en men-a to mean
mnogo, wieliko wiele viele många many, (very)
mogucz-ij możn-y mächtig mäktiga mighty
ogromn-y groß great
riad rząd Reihe, Rank rad row, range
os Achse axel axis
storona strona Seite sida a side
staw-ić ustaw-ić stell-en sätt-a to set
sto-jać st-ać steh-en stå to stand
lież-ać leż-eć lieg-en ligg-a to lie
po-loż-enie po-łoż-enie Lage läge loca-tion
driem-ać träum-en dröm to dream
sp-ać sp-ać schlaf-en sov-a to sleep
ik-ać czk-ać hicks-en hick-a to hiccup
kaszl-iać kaszl-eć hust-en host-a to cough
pis-ać piss-en piss-a to piss
smie-jaćsia śmi-ać się schmunzeln smil-a to smile
tanc-evać tańcz-yć tanz-en dans-a to dance
szuk-ać (Ukr.) szuk-ać such-en sök-a to seek
(u-)zr-ieć ujrz-eć seh-en se to see
bacz-ić (Ukr.) bacz-yć wach-en vak-a to watch
wid widok Bild vy a view
wstret-ić treff-en träff-a to meet
stupeń, stup-ać stupeń, stąp-ać stufe steg, stig-a step
skaz-ać wskaz-ać sag-en säg-a to say
(wolos) wełna Wolle wool
bros-ać wrzuc-ać werf-en to throw
briesch Bresche bräsch breach
Words, which are consonant with Sanskrit and Latin, are marked bold (see "Indo-Europeans").
Typical Germanic personal names, which were survived after the baptizing of Europe
Meaning German (Swedish) English Slavonic, Italian, French, Spanish
holy (masculine) Helge Oleg
holy (feminine) Helga Olga
Yngling (masculine) Ingvar Harry Igor
Yngling (feminine) Inga Inga, Ingrid
Carolingians Karl Charles, Charlotte, Carol, Caroline Karel, Carl, Carlo, Carlos, Charles, Charlotte
Famous warrior Chlodwig, Ludwig Lewis Ludovic, Louis, Luis, Louise
Bright xxx-bert, Berta xxx-bert xxx-ber(-t,-to)
Wolf xxx-olf, xxx-ulf, Wolfgang xxx-olf
Radulf Ralph, Ralf Raul
Hand xxx-mund xxx-mond xxx-mund, xxx-mond
Defender Raymond Ramon
Hard spear Gerhard Gerard, Gerry Gerard, Gerardo
Home ruler Heinrich Henry Henry, Enrico, Enrique
Ruler Richard Richard Ricardo
Free Franz Francis Franciszek, Francois
Eternal ruler Erick(-a) Erick(-a)
Serious Ernst, Erna Ernest Ernest(-o)
Peaceful ruler Friedrich, Fritz Frederick Federico
Volitional Wilhelm William, Bill(-y) Guillermo
Ruler Walter Walter Gautier, Gualterio
Famous defender Ferdinand Fernand, Fernando, Hernando
Sir Hermann
Bright soul Hugo Ugo
Victory Siegfried, Sigurd
Rich Otto
Defender Werner
xxx-ald, xxx-old xxx-aldo
Guard Edward Eduard, Eduardo
Bear Arthur (Celtic) Artur
Rock Alan (Celtic) Alan, Alen
Tall Bryan (Celtic)
Freckled Rowan (Celtic)
Noble Alice Alisa, Alize
Strong Brigitte Bridget, Brigid (Celtic) Brigida, Birgitta
Power of fight Matilda Matilda
Peace Frida
Irma, Emma Emma
Names, which came to Rus' before its baptizing, are marked bold.
Typical Slavonic personal names, which are survived after the baptizing of Slavians
Name Meaning Non-Slavonic
xxx-slav famous
Boris (Borislav) famous warrior
Vaclav (Viaceslav) famous Veche-man
xxx-mir world
Vladimir world owner Waldemar (Germanic "nightmare of forest")
Vadim (Vadimir)
Radomir world ruler Ramiro (Spanish)
xxx-bor warrior
xxx-vlad owner xxx-wald
Vsevolod owner of everything
Vlad(-a) owner
Vlas Veles Welles (English)
Ludmila nice to people
Bogdan(-a) God given
Vera belief Veronica (belief in victory)
Nadezhda hope
Lubov’ love
Lada beautiful
Svetlana bright
Snezhana snowy


  1. Mauro Orbini, "Il Regno degli Slavi", 1601

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