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Corresponding Wikipedia article: Thermodynamics


The heat is a chaotic motion and an identical mechanical interaction of the various particles:

The laws of thermodynamics are not fundamental, and they follow from the statistical theory of a particle system, which had emerged due to the kinetic theory of Mikhail Lomonosov.

The pressure is a volumetric density of the particles kinetic energy, which is separated from the internal (like non-kinetic) thermal energy. The pressure produces the forces, which are applied to the macroscopic objects in a system of the microparticles, for example, the pressure on a container wall. When the force fields do not exist, the pressure and temperature tend to become the same over the whole occupied volume (see "Continuum"). The equation of the total kinetic energy ("Particle system", 13): \[PV=NkT\tag{1}\] The thermal expansion provides by the pressure forces of the chaotically moving particles. The dielectric crystals have the lowest thermal expansion coefficient, because all their particles are rigidly bonded (diamond, quartz, etc.).

The total energy or the enthalpy ("Particle system", 1) of the equilibrium system, which is applicable for gases and liquids without the force fields, has a known general expression: \[H=TS=U+PV\tag{2}\] \[U=CT\tag{3}\] \(U\) is an internal energy of the thermal motion (vibration, rotation), which does not produce the pressure;
\(C\) is a heat capacity, which depends on the properties, the state and the amount of substance;
\(P\) is a pressure in the system;
\(V\) is a volume of the enclosed space or the specific (molar) volume.

The equation obtained from (1), (2), (3) by reduction of \(T>0\) becomes: \[S=C+kN\tag{4}\] The heat capacity is similar to the entropy, because:

  • It is determined by the number of system states.
  • It is equal to a sum of the partial heat capacities. So the specific (molar) heat capacity can be used.

The molar heat capacity and the entropy in SI units are interrelated so: \[S_M=C_M+kN_A=C_M+R\tag{5}\] where \(N_A\) is the Avogadro constant, and \(R\) is the ideal gas constant.

The absolute entropy value of the physical bodies is determined only by (4) and (5), because the statistical weight \(\Omega\) is not generally defined.


The change in enthalpy, which is caused by a heat exchange with the environment, leads to a change in temperature and/or entropy, but the global entropy is not reduced during the heat exchange. The entropy increase is manifested as the increase in the occupied volume or the pressure (if the volume is limited).

What constrains the growing entropy of the Universe, in which all the particles obviously tend to fill uniformly entire volume? The stars and planets, which hold their liquid and atmosphere by their gravity, were created against the principle of the uniform particle distribution when the force fields do not exist. Only the self-sustaining aetheric vortices as the sources of all fields are able to limit the entropy growth and to organize the matter.

In a non-equilibrium system, which consists of the parts with different parameters, the partial energies sum is the total system energy: \[PV=\sum{P_iV_i}=k\sum{N_iT_i}=NkT\tag{6}\] The pressure is proportional to the density (concentration) and to the temperature of the particles: \[P_i=\frac{N_i}{V_i}kT_i\tag{7}\] The liquids and gases can support the free vortices, where the central static pressure is reduced with respect to the periphery. The decrease in a static pressure is also accompanied by decrease in a temperature, or by decrease in the particles density (concentration) of a barotropic flow, and hence by decrease in the entropy and in the heat capacity.

The aether itself is not a particle system with the thermodynamic parameters, but it can support the stable macrovortices, which involve the material particles in a vortical motion. This constrains the growth of entropy and temperature within the Universe.


Two types of the thermodynamic energy conversion
Explosion Implosion
Examples explosion, combustion vortex, compression, fuel-air explosion
Volume increase decrease
Entropy increase decrease in the center of free vortices
Conversion heat -> pressure static pressure -> dynamic pressure
pressure -> heat
Engine combustion chamber, cylinder, piston turbine,
rotor and a working mass may be combined
Efficiency limited unlimited,
the “perpetual” motion in the aetheric vortices is possible

The explosion is a way to convert the thermal energy into the kinetic energy. This principle emerged after the gunpowder invention. Therefore a chemical energy is traditionally used, and the first heat engines, in fact, looked like a gun (a cylinder instead of a barrel, a piston instead of a shot).

The heat engine efficiency does not exceed a relative decrease in enthalpy (total energy) of the working mass during the conversion: \[\eta\leq\frac{H_{IN}-H_{OUT}}{H_{IN}}=1-\frac{H_{OUT}}{H_{IN}}=1-\frac{T_{OUT}S_{OUT}}{T_{IN}S_{IN}}<1\tag{8}\] The theoretical ideal Carnot engine does not alter the entropy of a working mass, when it does a useful work, but only reduces its temperature. The upper limit of efficiency (isentropic efficiency) of the real machines is evaluated by the formula for Carnot engine: \[\eta=1-\frac{T_{OUT}}{T_{IN}}\tag{9}\] The implosion, in the terminology of inventor Schauberger, is the natural efficient source of the kinetic energy in a form of the permanent compression instead of the cyclic expansion. The most efficient engines utilize the permanent high pressure areas in a working mass, which result in a permanent motion of this mass over its volume. The “perpetual” engines utilize the surrounding aether pressure.

Comparison of the efficiencies of various engines
Engine Principle Maximum efficiency
Steam reciprocating engine Explosion with an external combustion 10%
Stirling engine Explosion with an external combustion 30%
Gasoline reciprocating ICE Explosion 30%
Diesel engine Explosion + implosive ignition 40%
Turbocharger for a reciprocating ICE + implosion +10%
Aircraft engine Explosion + implosion 40%
Steam or gas turbine system Explosion + implosion 40%
Ideal reciprocating engine (see "Heat capacity") Explosion 50%
Rocket engine Explosion without a pistol 60%
Combined gas and steam turbine system Explosion + implosion 60%
Theoretical Carnot engine with a difference in temperature 1000 – 100 °С Explosion 70%
Clem’s engine Implosion
Schauberger’s turbine Implosion

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