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Corresponding Wikipedia article: State of matter

Five phases or states of matter, in ancient times called the “elements
Element State Essence Comment
Aether Radiation Photons, ideal gas. Traditionally it’s not considered as a state of matter.
Fire Plasma Almost an ideal gas. The difference between the gas and the plasma is as small as between green and blue colors.
Air Gas Real gas or a compressible “liquid”.
Water Liquid Uncompressible real “gas”.
Earth Solid Crystal. The difference between matter and photons is as small as between red and violet colors.

The knowledge level of the modern natural science decreases as moving up in the above table. The solid mechanics and the fluid dynamics are the most researched areas. The plasma and aether physics are the least researched areas.

The weak intermolecular bonds are based on a non-chemical electromagnetic interaction. The consequences of these bonds are:

The crystals are the real solids. The amorphous flexible solids are in fact the dense viscous liquids. The polycrystalline solids are the combinations of real and amorphous solids.

The body state depends on the average energy of the body particles, i.e. mainly on the temperature in case of the thermodynamic equilibrium.

State (phase)
Solid Liquid Gas, plasma
Retaining force crystal bonds surface tension electrostatic, nuclear
Temperature Т < TMELT TFREEZ < Т < TBOIL(P) TCOND(P) < Т < ТION(P),
Pressure mechanical stress static and dynamic
Density mainly proportional to the temperature thermodynamic (statistical) parameters
Molar heat capacity depends on the molecular structure, temperature and state

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