## Definition

A material particle, emitting the electromagnetic radiation, extracts a portion of its own beam, respectively losing own energy and own momentum. Since the vortex has a shape of a wave (solition), the wavelength of the emitted beams depends on its energy.

The quantization occurs only with the quantum effects in the atoms. The radiation with any combination of power and wavelength is always completely absorbed by the material particles, but it can be immediately emitted back because of the quantum effects.

## Bremsstrahlung

Bremsstrahlung occurs when the particles reduce their momentum (brake) in an electric field. This effect is a consequence of the law of conservation of momentum, and it is not associated with the electromagnetism. Bremsstrahlung is a cause of the electron shells radiation (see Atom), and some cases of the nuclear radiation. Bremsstrahlung, which arises at the high energy center of a vortex of mass $$m$$, which loses a momentum $$p$$, has an initial velocity: $v=\frac{p}{m}\tag{1}$ The initial wavelength of the beam is $$\lambda_0$$ ("Mass and momentum", 2), but while moving away from the center and reaching the speed of light, the wavelength becomes increased up to: $\lambda=\lambda_0\frac{c}{v}=\frac{h}{p}\tag{2}$

## Photons

Bremsstrahlung pulse, which is produced in a quantum effect, is called the quantum or the photon. The photon or the quantum is an abstract particle with a momentum ("Mass and momentum", 8), where the virtual mass has a physical meaning of the quantum energy: $p=\frac{h}{\lambda}=\frac{E}{c}=mc\tag{3}$ $E=\frac{hc}{\lambda}=h\nu\tag{4}$ The Compton effect is a mechanical interaction of the photons with the electrons, which is accompanied by a change in the photon wavelengths.

The dimensions of a photon i.e. the volume, which contains most of the energy, is proportional to the wavelength. The quantum effects are observed at the shorter wavelengths, when the photons almost do not overlap each other.

The photoelectric effect is explained by the low concentration of the small photons. The electrons absorb the rare single photons, so their energy is proportional to the wave frequency, similarly to the absorbed photons.

The quantum theory of the photoelectric effect, which was founded by Einstein, is violated during the multi-photon ionization by a concentrated beam of the photons, or by an irradiation with high energy density, when the electrons rapidly accumulate energy of several weak photons, and don't give it away. For example, in one experiment [1], a radiation of power about 1015 W/cm2 had caused the ionization of a rarefied gas at a wavelength greater than it is required on the quantum theory of the photoelectric effect.

The radiation, which is produced by a mechanical interaction of the aetheric masses within a particle itself, has a broadband spectrum and also accompanied by a corresponding loss of the energy and momentum of a particle. According to the law of conservation of momentum, the maximum energy is emitted in the direction of a particle motion.

The cyclotron or synchrotron radiation is emitted from the charged particles in a magnetic field. The whole particle moves with the transverse acceleration, but the partial aetheric masses are uncoordinated and are mechanically interacting with each other. The circular path produces the beams with a frequency of the particle rotation.

The transition radiation of the charged particles occurs at the transition to a medium with different permittivity. The neutral particles do not have such effect, because their electric field, which causes the medium polarization, do not exit. The particles are the rotating light beams and their speed alters, when they come from one medium to another. So, on a border of two media, the vortices have the asymmetric velocity distribution, the mass interaction, and the energy release in a radiation form.

The Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation occurs when the particle speed exceeds the speed of light in the medium. This radiation has the more narrower spectrum than the transition radiation, because the speed decreases sharply and significantly. This radiation is directed along a conical surface due to the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.