# Nucleus

Corresponding Wikipedia article: Atomic nucleus

Every atomic nucleus, except the elementary hydrogen nucleus (single proton), consists of the separate nucleons (protons and neutrons), which shape a spatial object. The neutrons reduce the electrostatic repulsion forces. The optimal packing is the hexagonal close packing, which consists of the tetrahedra. The nucleus forms a united aetheric vortex with its own de Broglie wave.

The decay of neutrons is inhibited due to proximity of the protons, which capture the electrons emitted during the decay. Accordingly, the number of neutrons in the stable nuclei is slightly higher than the number of protons, that is, almost every neutron is in pair with a proton, with which the electron can be exchanged.

Example: a deuterium nucleus $$_1^2H$$ is stable, and a tritium nucleus $$_1^3H$$ is not stable, because the number of its neutrons is twice more than the number of its protons.

The nuclear energy and forces, which bind the nuclei are magnetic in nature. The magnetic field energy, which tends to a minimum, orients the magnetic moments of the nucleons in opposite directions and brings them together as close as possible, reducing their internal magnetic flux density. As a result, the nuclear mass excess with the corresponding binding energy appears.

The nuclear energy is released in a form of the photon with a decrease in the nucleon mass according to the law of conservation of energy and ("Mass and momentum", 1).

The external magnetic field of the nuclei is weak, because the nucleons compensate the fields of each other up to the magnetic neutral nuclei, which have even numbers of the protons and the neutrons. The magnetically neutral nuclei are not the subject to the destructive mechanical vibration in an external alternating magnetic field.

The nuclear magnetic resonance is a mechanical resonance of the oscillating system (physical pendulum), which consists of a nucleus and a permanent magnetic field. The oscillations emerge due to redistribution of the rotation energy around a transverse axis and of the magnetic field energy. The free oscillations are decaying due to the photon radiation by the nonsteady moving particles of the nucleus. The forced oscillations are caused by the transverse alternating magnetic field. The resonant frequency is directly proportional to the magnetic flux density and decreases with increase in the mechanical moment of inertia of the nucleus, which depends on its mass and shape.

Abundance of chemical elements. The solid line marks the even numbers, the dotted line marks the odd numbers.

The more stable the nucleus, the higher its binding energy. The denser packing of nucleons, the more regular geometric shapes they form. The stable nucleus is understood not only as the decay intensity, but also as the stability in the stellar nucleosynthesis. The abundance of the chemical elements in the Universe is directly related to the nuclear stability in this sense.

The next, after the hydrogen isotopes, stable nucleus is the helium $$_2^4He$$ or the α-particle. This nucleus is non-magnetic and has the shape of a tetrahedron, which is dense packed and perfectly inscribed in a sphere. The nuclear decay often produces the α-particles.

The following, after the helium, stable nuclei are close to the dense packing in a form of the icosahedron, that is, with the number of nucleons around 13. The nuclear shape of carbon and nitrogen is closest to the icosahedron.

The nucleons seem like moved relative to each other during the motion of the nuclear electrons from one nucleon to another. The protons of a heavy nucleus are pushed to its surface by the electrostatic forces, and the neutrons are pushed to its center. The central neutrons are decaying slowly due to the gravitational time dilation, and the outer protons have time to capture more electrons, which are emitted by the neutrons. Therefore, the stable heavy nuclei have more neutrons than protons.

The protons on the nucleus surface tend to be uniformly distributed over it, and they can come into the regular polyhedra vertices. The electrostatic forces are distributed uniformly in such nucleus, and this improves the nucleus stability. For example, the protons of the abundant oxygen are located in the cube vertices.

The dense packed structure of protons in a form of the icosahedron allows the existence of several abundant elements, starting from the magnesium. Despite the irregular shape of these nuclei, the curvature of its surface is low, and the packing of protons is close to the solid hexagonal close packing.

The structure of protons in a form of the dodecahedron allows the existence of several abundant elements, starting from the calcium.

The iron nucleus has 13 packed pairs of protons, which shape an icosahedron, similarly to the magnesium nucleus. The iron starts a small sequence of abundant elements.

The nuclei with numbers greater than 30 are more chaotic, rarefied (friable), and less stable. With increase in number, the binding energy per nucleon is decreased and, respectively, the radioactivity is increased. The gamma radiation is caused not only by variation of the binding energy due to decay, but also by the movement of nucleons without the nucleus disintegration.

The Mössbauer effect is the nucleons motion in a rarefied nucleus with a work in its own electromagnetic field without altering of the total nucleus mechanical momentum.