Chemical interaction

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Corresponding Wikipedia article: Chemistry

The chemical interaction is based on a combination of the fundamental interactions: the magnetic forces of the electron pairing and the electrostatic forces.

Special terminology for quite simple physical phenomena
Chemical term Physical meaning
Valence Number of the atomic electrons, which have no pair.
Chemical bond Pairing of electrons, which belong to the bonded atoms.
Covalent radius Distance from the nucleus to the electron pair, which forms the bond.
Electronegativity Ability of an atom to attract the electrons of the bond. Basically, the smaller the covalent radius of an atom, the higher is its electronegativity.
Covalent bond Bonding of the identical atoms or the atoms, which are a little different in electronegativity.
Ionic bonding Bonding of the atoms with a high difference in electronegativity. As a result they become the ions.
Oxidation Loss of the electrons in the ionic bonding. Generally, the acceptor is oxygen or an acid residue.
Reduction Acceptance of the electrons in the ionic bonding.
Oxidation state (number) Electric charge of the ion in units of the elementary charge. The oxidation is decrease in the state, and the reduction is increase in the state. The absolute value of oxidation state is the valence usually.

The chemical reactions flow in a direction to the minimal electron potential energy, which is called the chemical (electrochemical) potential, i.e. in a direction to the maximum released energy. The energy is released and absorbed in a form of the photons, which are emitted and absorbed by the electrons. The law of conservation of energy for the reacting particle system has the form: \[\Delta H=T\Delta S+\Delta G\tag{1}\] \[\Delta H\geq 0,\;\;\;\;\;\Delta G\leq 0\tag{2}\] \(\Delta H\) is the reaction enthalpy (heat of formation);
\(\Delta G\) is the Gibbs free energy, which leaves the particle system.

Every chemical reaction raises the temperature and/or the entropy of a system.

The rate of the reactions, as the random processes, is proportional to the average particle energy (temperature and pressure).

The catalysis of the chemical reactions by the aetheric vortices shows the Schauberger’s helical tube (helicoid). A lot of unstable aetheric vortices, which are generated by the flow of liquid, plays the role of a thermal motion, which accelerates the reaction.

The biochemistry does not consist only of the organic chemical reactions. The genetic processes have an aetheric nature.

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