Nuclear chemistry

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Corresponding Wikipedia article: Cold fusion

The nuclear reaction occurs either spontaneously (radioactive decay) or by action of the neutrons or the high energy charged particles, which overcome a potential barrier of the electrostatic repulsion forces.

The electron capture by a nucleus occurs when the electron energy is sufficiently low and the surrounding electric field is sufficiently high. The electron capture at the inner shell occurs very often within the heavy atoms, which have a high electric charge of both the nucleus and the electron shell.

For example, the hydrogen atoms do not provide the electron capture due to the low electron concentration and the weak electric field. But the electron concentration is increased significantly in the heavy metal hydrides. The absorption of hydrogen by a metal increases the probability of conversion of a hydrogen atom into a free neutron, which can cause the nuclear reactions even with its low energy.

The hydrogen absorption by the metals is a way of the hydrogen storage. The low mobility of the hydrogen atoms does not cause any adverse effects. Also the resulting neutrons are almost immobile, and on expiration of their lifetime, they decay back to the hydrogen atoms.

The cold fusion occurs with a continuous absorption of the hydrogen isotopes by a good adsorbent (palladium or nickel). The hydrogen is continuously released from the aqueous solution by electrolysis on the absorbing electrode, and the hydrogen atoms are in a permanent motion. At a high concentration and mobility of the absorbed hydrogen, the fusion of single and paired neutrons into the hydrogen isotopes and the helium is very probable.

Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) is a practical device for the cold nuclear fusion, which utilizes the heat instead of the electrolysis. The adsorbent is the nickel. The nuclear reactions additionally synthesize the copper from the nickel.

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