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Corresponding Wikipedia article: The Exodus
Scientific approach to history
History is a Greek word "study", "research", which is derived from the Hebrew “Torah” (teaching). The father of history is considered Herodotus. The Jewish "teaching" actually started with Torah and finished with the Bible: the basis for history and other humanities, which were gradually separated from the theology since the Renaissance. The official history is rather based on the ancient written sources than on the natural scientific analysis.
The well-known ancient history was composed during Renaissance according to various written sources, and it was completed in the XVII century by a Catholic theologian D. Petavius, who continued the work of a mathematician J. Scaliger. One of the main original sources on the ancient history is the chronicle of Eusebius of Caesarea (III-IV cc.), one of the founders of Christianity. The chronological errors in combination with the different names of the same objects have generated the events, which really did not exist.
- The kings of Sparta were descended from the mythical Hercules. They ruled during averagely 40 years each, while the other kings ruled during averagely 20 years each. Seems like this was caused by their spartan (minimalistic) lifestyle. The realistic explanation is: the history of the ancient Greece is elongated artificially for several hundred years.
- The quest of Argonauts, according to the astronomical dating, occurred in the X century BC, but traditionally it dates in the XIV century BC.
The Russian revolutionary Narodnik, the freemason, and the Soviet academician, N.A. Morozov stated, that the historical chronology is correct only since the V century, because he found many previous incorrect dates of the solar eclipses, and also the modern calendar did not exist at that time. The research of the ancient Greek Olympic dating gave the similar results . Also, it's important to notice, that shortly before that time, the Romans had robbed and burned the ancient Library of Alexandria with its historical documents. In this regard, all the ancient events and their dates (before the V century) are questioning.
Claudius Ptolemy is a mythical versatile scholar with a misty biography, whose Hebrew name (Ptolemy) means "who prevails with God" (Israel) according to N.A. Morozov. All the great Ptolemy's works is a medieval imitation of the antiquity, which corresponds to the science of the XVI century, when these works became known during the Renaissance  for the first time. One of these works is allegedly preserved in the quotations of other authors: "Canon of Kings". This is a chronological table of the ancient world, which corresponds to the chronology of Scaliger-Petavius.
The followers of N.A. Morozov, the mathematicians G. Nosovski and A. Fomenko had identified a lot of sequences of the ancient events, which are differing only in the names and are shifted in time. Unfortunately, many results of these studies, about which the historians grin, can not be trusted, because of the one-sided formal approach to this analysis, the lack of linguistic, religious, and the general humanitarian approach. One of the major mistakes is the taking into account the false chronological theory of an American R. Newton, and a significant shortening of the history of the whole civilization. The only truth is: the well-known history of Northern Eurasia is really limited to the last Millennium.
The period 1200-700 BC is a time of the so-called Kingdom of Israel, which history is based only on the Old Testament and on the Josephus's books, which retell it. In fact, the Israel and the Judah are not the usual geographical terms, but these areas were moving along with their population around the world.
The versatile scientist I. Velikovsky (a son of a religious Jew) was well aware, that the history has a religious basis, and it is based on the dogmas. He questioned the history of Egypt independently of N.A. Morozov and stated, that some confusion is related to the Exodus and scattering of the Jews in a period of about 1200-700 BC.
The confusion in the history of Egypt begins since the Akhenaten dynasty and is continued further with the Ramesseses. For example, the official biography of Ramesses II the Great is contradictory and is similar to a myth:
- He reigned 66 years of 90 years of the entire life. The autopsists estimate the age of his mummy of 50-55 years.
- The father of 111 sons and 67 daughters from six wives and a lot of the concubines.
The list of the Akkadian and the first Babylonian (Amorite) kings is binded to the date of the heliacal rising of Venus (Ishtar) in 8th year of the Ammi-Saduqa reign. This rise occurred precisely in 1639 ± 64 BC. Therefore, the traditional chronology of Akkad and Babylon is not questioned.
The Assyrians also used an accurate astronomical calendar, so the chronology of these kingdoms is not questioned also. But the Middle Assyrian period looks remarkably similar to the Neo-Assyrian period with a time shift about 400 years.
|Middle Assyrian Empire
|Dependence on Mitanni||Liberation from the Arameans|
|Ashur-uballit I (1353–1318 BC)||Adad-nirari II (911—891 BC)|
|Adad-nirari I (1295—1264 BC)||Adad-nirari III (810—783 BC)|
|Wars with Hittites, Babylonians, Mushki||Urartu took some regions|
|Tiglath-Pileser I (1114–1076 BC)||Tiglath-Pileser III (745—727 BC)|
|—||Shalmaneser V (about 727—722 BC)|
|—||Sargon II (722–705 BC)|
|—||Sennacherib (705–680 BC)|
|—||Esarhaddon (680—669 BC)|
|—||Ashurbanipal (668—627 BC)|
|Invasion of Arameans (about 1000 BC)||Invasion of Medians (630th BC)|
The additions and conclusions to the last table:
- The Middle Assyrian Empire never existed, because only the scant records without an astronomical dating exist.
- The Aramean invasion and liberation from them did not occur, because the Assyrians themselves were Arameans (Semites). The Aryan Mitanni (aka Medes) was instead of the Arameans. This causes a shift of the Mitanni and everything, which is connected with it, of about 400 years.
- Shalmaneser V is a fictional king with a scanty biography. He is a conqueror of the Kingdom of Israel, which did not exist in the traditionally represented form.
The heliacal rising of the Sothis (Sirius) coincides with a new year within the Sothic cycle every 365 / ¼ = 1460 years. According to a Roman writer Censorinus, the last such rising had occurred in the 139 AD. The shift of this date of 330 years forwards (see "Rome and Israel") and of two Sothic cycles backwards gives a date: 139 + 330 – 2 ∙ 1460 = –2451
The Great Pyramid, which is assigned to Khufu by Herodotus (see "Buddha, Christ and Krishna"), is traditionally dated to this time with a typical mistake in 100 years, which is permissible for the chronology of Ancient Egypt. In the ancient times, someone talked about its designation to obeserve the Sothis (Sirius), which is denoted by a triangle (a side of the pyramid). One of the pyramid corridors shows the Sothis annually during a dawn, and this together with calendar would indicate the start of the next Sothic cycle, which was associated with the traditional building date of the pyramid.
The result: to shift the history of Egypt approximately 400 years forward. Since the pharaohs were closely binded to the kings of Hittites (along with Mitanni), these kingdoms with their scanty history are also shifted. This brings the founding of the Early Kingdom of Egypt to the traditional building date of the Great Pyramid, which was probably just the starting date of the calendar and of the Sothic cycle, which is associated with the Abraham’s time.
|Hittite kingdom, Mitanni||Lydia, Medes|
|Phoenicia, Assyria||New Babylon|
|Early Kingdom||Old Kingdom||Middle Kingdom||2nd Intermediate Period||New Kingdom||3rd Intermediate Period|
- The priest Imhotep (Biblical Joseph), who actually founded the Old Kingdom of Egypt, lived in the times of the flourishing Akkad. The time of Joseph, who is a great-grandson of Abraham, is in a good agreement with the time of Abraham (see "Semites") and with the pyramids “building” date. According to the Bible, Abraham begot Isaac at the age of 100 years, Isaac begot Jacob at 40 ears, and Jacob begot Joseph at 90 years. The age difference between Abraham and Joseph is 230 years, and the traditional duration of the Early Kingdom of Egypt is 200–350 years. Thus, according to the fairy tales, Abraham could well be one of the founders of the Early Kingdom of Egypt.
- The Old Kingdom of Egypt was decayed after the Akkadian kingdom, as a result of the invasion of the nomadic Semitic Amorites ("amu" in Egyptian), who is mentioned in the papyri by Ipuwer and Nefer-rehu, which are related to the Old Kingdom language style.
- The time of Hyksos and the 2nd Intermediate Period matches to: the conquest of Babylon by the Kassites (Aryans), the first occurrence of the Aryan chariots within this region, and the beginning of the iron processing in the Hittite Empire.
- The Hittite Empire disappeared along with Assyrian empire as a part of it. It was converted into the Lydia, Medes, etc.
- Queen Hatshepsut is traditionally dated to the XV century BC, and the Queen of Sheba to the X century BC. The shift of chronology synchronizes the duplicates of the same person.
- The ancient Kingdom of Israel is the New Kingdom of Egypt and the Assyria, which defended Jerusalem and the entire Phoenicia before the strengthening of New Babylon.
- The Assyrian Empire (as well as all the future international states) existed only one time, and it was a prototype for all the succeeding empires.
The Exodus occurs during the Assyrian Empire. The migration of Phoenicians and Jews outside the empire into the free Western lands brought the following results:
- Carthage, which was began as a Phoenician colony to the west of Cyrenaica (Libya), and was finished with Rome.
- Archaic Greece, which began to develop in the time of pharaoh Ramesses III .
- Isaac Newton, The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms — 1728 — ISBN 978-0-7661-8683-5
- Uwe Topper, Die "Große Aktion". Europas erfundene Geschichte (Grabert, Tübingen) — 1998
- Н.А. Морозов, Христос. Том IV. Во мгле минувшего при свете звезд. // ч.I, гл.II , Крафт+Леан, 1998
- I. Velikovsky, Peoples of the Sea — 1977 — ISBN 978-1-906833-15-2
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