# Electromagnetic waves and light

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Corresponding Wikipedia article: Electromagnetic radiation

## Introduction

The electromagnetic waves, also the light, are a combination of the magnetic waves in a material and the electromagnetic aetheric beams in the vacuum. The beam has a motionless magnetic wave with respect to it. The radial nature of the light allows applying the geometrical optics laws, which cannot be applied to other waves (acoustic etc.).

The refraction of beams emerges due to a difference of the wave velocities in the different mediums. The variable speed varies the wavelength.

The speed of light in vacuum with respect to the absolute inertial reference frame is the same for any direction of a beam. Within other reference frames, the usual addition of speeds takes place, i.e. the speed of light is not invariant with respect to the reference frame, and it can exceed the speed of light in vacuum.

The natural sources of the beams are the elementary particles of matter, which by their nature are sensitive to their absolute speeds. The wavelength of the beam source is the same in every reference frame, and does not depend on the speed of light in the radiation direction. The different speeds of light causes the different frequencies of oscillations inside the source. $\lambda=\frac{c+\Delta c}{\nu+\Delta \nu}=const$

## Aberration of light

The aberration of light (astronomical) emerges due to the speed of light in sum with the transverse absolute speed $$V$$ of an observer, as it is shown in . The aberration angle is: $\alpha\approx\frac{V}{c}\;\;\;\;\;V\ll c$ The aberration increases the beam path and reduces the observed speed $$c'$$ of light: $c^2=c'^2+V^2$ $c'=c\;\sqrt{1-\frac{V^2}{c^2}}$ If the transverse speed $$V$$ = 3·105 m/s, then the speed of light is reduced only by 0,5ppm. A much larger deviation occurs when moving at the same speed along the beam: 1000ppm (0,1%). The astronomical aberration values are measured in the arcseconds, and even a 1% error is beyond the telescopes precision.

## Speed of light measurement

The Fizeau and Michelson methods of measuring of the speed of light are using the forward and backward reflected light beam along the same segment of length $$L$$, which is moving at an absolute velocity $$V$$. The measured speed $$c'$$, when moving along the beam, is expressed in terms of the direct and inverse beam timing: $\frac{2L}{c'}=\frac{L}{c+V}+\frac{L}{c-V}=\frac{2cL}{c^2-V^2}$ $c'=c\left(1-\frac{V^2}{c^2}\right)$

Effect of the "aetheric wind” $$V$$ on the measured speed of light
Factor Speed, m/s Error $$(1-c'/c)$$
longitudinal transverse
Daily Earth’s rotation at the equator 460 2·10–12 1·10–12
Earth’s rotation around the Sun 3·104 10–8 5·10–9
Sun’s rotation in the Galaxy 2,2·105 5,4–7 2,7·10–7

The errors are comparable to the measurement accuracy, and they partially compensate each other, because either the longitudinal or the transverse error dominates at the different instrument orientations. Thus, this measurement gives the absolute speed of light with a small methodological error.

The Fizeau or Michelson methods of measuring the speed of light do not prove the aether absence and the speed of light invariance with respect to any frame.

The radiolocation also utilizes the forward and backward reflected beam. The methodological error of the distance measuring does not exceed 1ppm. The radiolocation substitutes the optical method for measuring the speeds of the celestial bodies.

A researcher Stefan Marinov in 1984, who used the modified Fizeau method with the separate parallel beams and the coupled shutters, has measured the absolute speed of the Earth’s surface point.

The beam sources S1 and S2 are provided by one laser with the mirrors. The identical shutter discs C1 and C2 are rotated synchronously at a stable speed. The discs are arranged so that a beam, when passes through the full hole of the first disk, then passes through a half of the second disc hole, providing the high sensitivity to the beam speed variations. The receivers O1 and O2 are the photodiodes, which generate the EMF and currents, a difference of which is measured. The screws V1 and V2, by varying the beam path lengths, provide the balanced measurement of the speed deviations, zeroing out the difference between the photodiode currents.

This instrument measures along its axis the deviation of the observed speed of light from the absolute speed of light. The transverse (aberrational) deviation is compensated, because it is the same for both beams.

The instrument orientation along the Earth’s meridian at the latitude 47⁰N, provides a sinusoidal dependence of the "aetheric wind" from the time of day, with the peaks of about +1,4·105 m/s and –3,4·105 m/s.

The dipole anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation was detected in 1969. It looks as such a radiation frequency Doppler shift, as if the Earth is moving at a speed 6,3·105 m/s with respect to the beams.