China and Japan
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Foundation chapter: Mongols
The dragon is a sacred animal and the first ancestor of the Chinese, Koreans and Vietnamese. The mythical ancestors of the Chinese are the "snake-people" Fuxi and Nüwa, and of the Vietnamese is the "snake-man" Lac long Quan and the fairy Au Co. The Japanese dragons are negative as for the Northern peoples.
The Ainu ("real people") is the first known population of the Far East and Japan, who survived after the cataclysm that occurred about 13 thousand years ago. The Ainu culture is the Japanese Jomon period, the oldest Eurasian culture. The samurai culture is descended from the Ainu as well as some samurai clans (for example, Abe).
China, Korea and Japan never were completely isolated countries, and they were developed synchronously with the rest world but in a special way. They represent the Oriental civilization of the Pacific Ocean in contrast to the Western civilization of the Atlantic Ocean.
The Chinese lunisolar calendar is known since the II millennium BC, but almost every dynasty of emperors introduced its own chronology. Also the Chinese did not perform the accurate astronomical measurements before the modern time. The Chinese chronology became known over the world (including the Chinese themselves) from the works of Jesuits of the XVIII century, who brought the world history into accordance with Scaliger’s chronology. A German orientalist Uwe Topper believes that they had inserted a period of about 300 years called the Tang dynasty into the Chinese history. The removal of the Tang dynasty approximately fits the history into the 400-year historical cycles of rises and downfalls:
|Legendary Xia dynasty.||Jomon period.|
|Relations with Rome. Emperor Qin Shi Huang. Han dynasty.||Legendary emperors. Yayoi period.|
|Jin dynasty. Influence of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate in the times of disintegration (a fictional Tang dynasty).||The first Empire. Yamato and Nara periods.|
|Sui dynasty, Song dynasty. Expansion into the West (Western Liao).||Samurai (Abe clan). Heian period.|
|The Mongol Yuan dynasty. Ming dynasty.||Shogunate (samurai feudalism). Kamakura and Muromachi periods.|
|Qing dynasty. The Republic.||Edo period (Tokugawa shogunate). The restoration of Empire.|
Shang dynasty is the invasion of Aryans (the whites), due to which Huangdi is called the Yellow Emperor. The civil wars had finished and the Chinese Empire between heaven (天, "tiān") and earth (土, « tŭ») became known as the "Middle" (中, "zhōng" ) Kingdom, and the emperors (王, “wan”) became the ambassadors of heaven. Probably, these are the Vanir, who were the enemies of Æsir.
The Five Elements (五行, "wu xing") are fitted into the Chinese version of the Aryan cross:
|North, night, winter
水 Water (Baikal – Běihǎi, 北海, "northern sea")
|West, evening, autumn
金 Metal (Tian Shan)
|East, morning, spring|
木 Wood (forests)
|South, day, summer
The Dinglings is a disappeared Caucasoid (Aryan) people. The Tocharians are the descendants of Dinglings, the ancestors of the Uyghurs, Tajiks and Pashtuns. Tokharistan (Bactria) is a historical region to the west of China. The blond-haired light-eyed Caucasoid people (Dard, Kalash), who confess the Aryan religion, are still preserved at the Hindu Kush mountains.
The Chinese philosophy (Taoism, etc.) was formed during the propagation of Buddhism in the I millennium BC. The doctrine known as Confucianism became the state ideology of China, Korea and Japan. Confucius did not consider himself the only author of this doctrine.
The Great Wall of China is the fortified guarded road for wagons, which connects the ancient civilization of the pyramids and the new civilization on the Pacific shore. The battlements are directed into different sides at the different parts of this wall . Also the protection of the state with such huge structures is extremely inefficient. The main fortifications are the compact cities everywhere since the ancient times until now, and the frontiers are marked only by the small outposts. China finally became a united state with a single language and the modern borders only in the modern times.
Japan was settled by the Chinese in the I millennium BC, and there was built the state on the Chinese model keeping the traditional Shinto religion though.
Korea is a peninsula and therefore a separate part of the Chinese civilization.
Vietnam is a junction between Indochina and China in a geopolitical sense. Vietnam and China have a common border and a common ocean (source of fish and other seafood). The Vietnamese history develops synchronously with the Chinese since the Common Era.
Rome had learned about China (Latin: Cina, Sinae) thanks to the silk (丝, "sī"). The development of the Silk Road and the Central Asian peoples began with the silk trade. The silk technology was the state secret in the medieval China. The paper (纸, "zhi") was invented in China and produced on a similar technology. In the heyday of Rome, the Chinese Empire was called Qin (秦), and the Roman Empire "Da Qin" (大秦, great Qin).
Qin Shi Huang is the new yellow (Huang) emperor, the founder of the first centralized bureaucratic Chinese state of Qin. The pyramidal tomb of Shi Huang was discovered only in 1974, and it is still unexplored. The famous Terracotta Army, which accompanies the deceased, is buried beside him.
The tyrannical Qin dynasty did not last long, giving a way to the Han dynasty, which was descended from the peasant rebels and determined the Chinese nation name: Han.
The Battle of Zhizhi Chanyu with the Chinese occurred in the Silk Road area. An orientalist H.H. Dubs wrote in his article "An Ancient Military Contact Between Romans and Chinese" that the Romans fought on the side of Huns according to "History of the Former Han Dynasty". The Zhizhi fortress, like the Roman fortifications, had the earth walls, a double palisade and the watchtowers. The gates were guarded by an infantry squad built "like a fish-scale", which reminds the Roman "tortoise". The Chinese won and captured more than a thousand of Huns. Also, a village Liqian emerged at this time in the western Chinese province of Gansu, where a half of population still has the European DNA, who do not deny their origin from the Roman soldiers.
The new chronology of history explains how the Romans came to the Zhizhi Huns. According to the official history, Rome suffered an unprecedented defeat in the Battle of Carrhae (biblical Harran) with some Parthia. As a result, the Parthians somehow transferred some prisoners into the modern Turkmenistan area, where they come to the Huns. The new chronology of Iran assumes that Parthia is just a small Kingdom in the Turkmenistan area. Thus, Rome with varying success could own a significant part of the Silk Road in the area of the weak separated Persian kingdoms up to the Chinese border.
The Roman power over the Silk Road supported the Jewish communities throughout its length, which resulted in the formation of Khaganates (Turkic, Khazar, etc.). The first Jewish communities in China emerged along with the Silk Road. The population stratification at the end of the Han dynasty led to the Yellow Turban Rebellion of peasants and the subsequent collapse of the empire.
Uwe Topper believes that the mythical Tang dynasty, which reigned for about 300 years (VII-X centuries), is an invention of Jesuits, who adjusted the world history in accordance to Scaliger's chronology. All manuscripts of the Tang dynasty chronicle are dated to the XVII–XVIII centuries. The Tang emperors allegedly ruled the Central Asia instead of the Turkic khagans. Topper proves the Jesuit authorship of the Tang history:
- A Chinese scholar Ling Lu Che believed that this chronicle more resembles a misogynistic novel with an idealized view of the army. The Chinese army always was built by the neighbors, who usually conquered China.
- Equality of women and polygamy are the causes of the dynasty downfall.
- Superstitions and witchcraft are the causes of the dynasty downfall.
|Banknotes||The paper money is a cunning invention of the Jews, who got the great opportunities in China during the Yuan dynasty. Although the payment documents existed before.|
|Playing cards||Tarot and the playing cards are originated from Middle East. The Chinese prefer the dominoes and Mahjong, where the Kabbalistic hierarchy does not exist.|
|Clock with escapement||The precision mechanics and astronomy is a Western European feature, which was unknown to the medieval Asians before the arrival of Jesuits such as Matteo Ricci.|
Kaifeng (Daliang) is a city founded during the Qin (Rome), as the capital of a wealthy independent State of Wei (Liang) with a short history. The second heyday of this city is associated with the large Jewish communities and the Tang dynasty, after which this largest city became the capital of China, the prosperous Song dynasty.
The gunpowder was invented during the Song dynasty (X century), was firstly used in the incendiary (smoke) ammunition, and then in the high-explosive shells and missiles by the XIII century. However, this cunning invention did not help the emperors both against the Jurchen conquest of Kaifeng and against the Mongol conquest of China.
Yuan dynasty ("Mongol-Tatar yoke") had filled China by the various foreigners "semu" (color-eyed) including Jews, who were called "zhuhu" (from Persian "Juhu": Jew). For the first time in the world history, the paper money had become the main money signs, which enriched the new elite at the expense of the local population. The discrimination and exploitation of the local population led to the Red Turban Rebellion, after which China had left the Mongol Empire. The new Ming dynasty had established the new “southern capital” Nanjing and then the present-day “northern capital” Beijing.
By the XV century during the Ming dynasty, the Jews had got almost equal rights with the native population. The gradual disorganization of the corrupted state and the total privatization led to the empire decline, the peasant rebellion and the Manchu conquest of China (Qing dynasty) in the XVII century. When the peasants of Li Zicheng besieged Kaifeng, the Ming army opened a dam on the Yellow River, which had flooded the city with its population and had destroyed the synagogue. Then the Chinese Jews were gradually dissolved within the local population losing their cultural identity. The Manchu silver Liang had replaced the paper money and had become the main currency before the XX century, when the isolation of empire terminated.
The Jesuits came into China and Japan during the Ming dynasty. They strated and ended with creation of a small Catholic Church. The Christianity as well as any Abrahamic religion did not widely spread within China and Japan. The Japanese Christians rebellion resulted in the long isolation of Japan from the world.
The Korean Joseon dynasty arose after the weakening of the Mongol Empire in the late XIV century and ruled before the XX century. The unique Korean branch of the Chinese culture was formed during this dynasty. It includes the scientifically developed phonetic writing Hangul.
The world's hardest Chinese writing system retains for thousands of years the basic principle of a pictogram, which has a lexical meaning. The Chinese characters are used for all Chinese dialects, for Japanese (Kanji), and even for an old Vietnamese (Chữ Nôm). Reading of the Chinese characters is different in the various languages and dialects. The modern simplified writing differs from the traditional writing by the elimination of informational redundancy in the graphics and also the definition of a set of elements (radicals), from which a character is composed. The Chinese writing is a phonetic syllabary, and its further simplification does not develop because of the complicated phonetics of the Southeast Asian languages (tone of vowels), which is not related to the Japanese. The simple phonetic Japanese writing system emerged in the samurai times much later than the Chinese system. However this system has not fully replaced the kanji, though any significant obstacle does not exist. As a result, the Chinese and Japanese need to know for about five hundred characters for the basic dictionary, and the complete literacy requires 1-3 thousands of the total excessive number of characters, i.e. tens of thousands. Therefore, the literacy traditionally was a privilege of the Chinese elite as well as the Japanese people of the samurai times. Only in the late XX century, a proportion of the literate Chinese population was heavily increased from 20% to 80%, although these numbers do not reflect the education quality (number of characters). The modern Chinese language is conservative as the whole culture (文, "wén"), which differs from the Japanese language by the undeveloped phonetic borrowing of foreign words. The Chinese prefer the traditional vocabulary for the new concepts, for example:
|Chinese word||Literal meaning||Translation|
|大西洋||great Western ocean||Atlantic ocean|
|石油||stone oil||petroleum (asphalt)|
|直升机||vertical take-off machine||helicopter|
|累加器||tiring and reloadable device||accumulator|
|电池||electric pond||electric battery|
|电荷||electric lotus||electric charge|
|电传||electric transmission||teleprinter, telex|
|传真||transfer of the original||fax|
|收音机||sound receiving machine||radio|
|手机||hand machine||mobile phone|
Japan in the XIX century has been modernized under the pressure of USA and the world empires, and then the Empire was restored and begun expansion into the Southeast Asia. The rift between China and Japan deepened after the Sino-Japanese war and especially after the USSR emergence. The division of Korea occurred after the WWII.
The British Empire tried to colonize China in the XIX century. This was started and finished with a colony of Hong Kong. The cooperation with the West resulted in the flourishing biggest port of Shanghai, but started with the negative events:
- Opium wars due to the corruption and the mass mortality of Chinese from the imported drugs.
- Taiping Rebellion of the peasants, who were infected with the Christian ideals of the universal equality and brotherhood. The lack of any ideology except a robbery (including Jewish) and also the new more perfect westernized "Ever Victorious Army" helped to suppress this rebellion.
- French conquest of Vietnam.
- Spontaneous rebellion of the illiterate nationalists-Yihetuans or “boxers” was actually the end of Qing dynasty, which had lost the control completely.
|Taoism, Buddhism||Marxism, dialectics|
|Single Tao is divided into Yin and Yang||Unity and struggle of opposites|
|Zen (enlightment)||Transition from quantity to quality|
|Time consists of cycles of creation and destruction||Negation of the negation|
1920s, China with the USSR support came under the CPC control.
The Japanese Empire boldly declared the war against USA in 1941 and suffered a catastrophic defeat in 1945 after the nuclear bombing. The winners (USA and USSR) got the Japanese technology of the biological warfare. The divine emperor was removed from power as also his successor, and the peaceful ambitious samurai began to win in the economy and in producing of the perfect audio, video, auto- technics.
After Stalin’s death, the intra-party struggle and then the crisis of Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution happened in China. The crisis was ended by the "Chinese socialism" of Deng Xiaoping, which works flawlessly so far. This is the strict state control over the market economy. The lonely North Korea kept the imperial ambitions and gradually plunged into the economic crisis, which is not featured by the moderate Laos and Vietnam. The unpretentious hardworking Vietnamese supported by USSR and China had repelled the aggression of the world strongest armies.
1980s. The Chinese and Vietnamese wise economic reforms and the struggle against corruption were coincided with a failed Perestroika of USSR. The liberal movement under the Western influence has been developed within China and within USSR almost simultaneously. It was resulted in the Tiananmen Square events and the Moscow events of 1991 respectively. The outcome of these events was different and consequently the fate of the two States.
- The American Journal of Philology Vol. 62, No. 3 (1941), pp. 322-330
- Uwe Topper, Die "Große Aktion". Europas erfundene Geschichte (Tübingen 1998)
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