# Aether model

## Basic postulates

The ancient Greek philosopher Democritus believed that entire space is filled by the tiny indivisible immeasurable particles called “ámer”. This term is used in this and other aetheric theories.

The atoms, the elementary particles and the radiation consist of the ámers. After discovery of the radioactive decay and of the production of electron-positron pairs, it became clear that the matter and radiation are of the same nature. The next step should be an understanding of the common nature of matter, radiation and vacuum (aether).

The dimensions and weight of the ámers are infinitesimally small, and knowledge of their values has no meaning. The aether itself is neither thermodynamic nor quantum system.

The propagation speed of all interactions is limited by the speed of amers, which are in the permanent motion over the physical space. The action at a distance does not exist.

The amers concentration is constant over the homogeneous space. The amers are divided into two modes, depending on their motion:

• Gravitational amers (hereinafter gravitons) in a fast laminar flow.
• Electromagnetic amers (hereinafter simply amers) in a slow turbulent flow, which is called the magnetic field according to the Faraday's idea of vortex tubes.
Structures
Aether Basic forces Interactions
Electromagnetic Electric Electrostatic (violet color is similar to red) Electrostatic
Electrodynamic Electrodynamic
Magnetic Magnetic Weak nuclear (protons and electrons)
Magnetic
Gravitational Gravitational Mechanical (yellow color is similar to integral white) Mechanical
Gravitational (red color is similar to violet) Strong nuclear (distribution of matter within microworld)
Gravitational

The gravitons run along the straight lines with a speed, which exceeds by many times the speed of light in vacuum .

The electromagnetic amers have the following differences from the gravitons:

• Speed of light in vacuum with respect to the absolute reference frame, which limits the transfer speed of the magnetic field.
• Curvilinear motion in the interaction of vortices, of which the magnetic field consists.

The single magnetic field quantity is traditionally divided into a cause and an effect:

• Cause. The magnetic field strength $$\mathbf{\overrightarrow{H}}$$, which is proportional to the electric currents.
• Effect. The magnetic flux density $$\mathbf{\overrightarrow{B}}$$, which depends on the material response to the electric currents action.
SI CGS, simplified $$\tag{1}$$
$\mathbf{\overrightarrow{B}}=\mu_0\mu\mathbf{\overrightarrow{H}}$ $\mathbf{\overrightarrow{B}}=\mu\mathbf{\overrightarrow{H}}$
$$\mu_0=4\pi\cdot 10^{-7}H/m.$$

$$\mu$$ is a relative permeability ($$\mu=1$$ for the vacuum).

The actual physical quantity of the magnetic field is the magnetic flux density $$\mathbf{\overrightarrow{B}}$$. In the simplified system of units, $$\mathbf{\overrightarrow{H}}$$ is replaced by $$\mathbf{\overrightarrow{B}}$$ for the aetheric domain (see below).

## Discrete model

The magnetic field is defined for the space dimensionality of at least 2. The magnetic flux density vector is perpendicular to the velocity vector of the electromagnetic ámer:

The velocity and magnetic fields are the weighted sums of fields of the ámers, which pass through the point. Within an abstract absolute emptiness, both fields are zero, because they are sum of fields of the ámers, which are propagated and oriented uniformly in all directions. The vacuum fluctuations, as a sum of the uniform random components, are subject to a normal distribution.

In general, the conditions for any space point are the following (magnitudes are replaced by squares): ${v_a}^2\leq c^2\tag{2}$ $B^2\leq {B_{MAX}}^2\tag{3}$ For any finite region of space, the number of ingoing ámers is equal to the number of outgoing ámers. The velocity field is not a potential field: $\oint{\mathbf{\overrightarrow{v_a}}\mathrm{d}\mathbf{\overrightarrow{S}}}=div\;\mathbf{\overrightarrow{v_a}}=\nabla\cdot\mathbf{\overrightarrow{v_a}}=0\tag{4}$ The well-known Gauss's low for the magnetic flux through a closed surface is similar to a property of the velocity field (4): $\oint{\mathbf{\overrightarrow{B}}\mathrm{d}\mathbf{\overrightarrow{S}}}=div\;\mathbf{\overrightarrow{B}}=\nabla\cdot\mathbf{\overrightarrow{B}}=0\tag{5}$ The magnetic field is invariant with respect to any reference frame, and it could be called the material (not relative) field.

## Continuous model

The magnetized (turbulent) aether is the continuum in a form of the ideal compressible fluid or the ideal gas, to which the Euler’s equation etc. is applicable.

The aetheric beam is a line, the tangent of which is parallel to the beam velocity vector at a given point. The aetheric beam corresponds to the streamline of an aetheric vortex.

The beam velocity $$\mathbf{\overrightarrow{v}}$$ is a speed of the magnetic field transfer along the beam: $v^2\leq c^2\tag{6}$

The light and other radiation forms are the aetheric beams in the form of the magnetic waves. Rene Descartes explained the optical phenomena with a light as the movement of some very rarefied matter, rather than the oscillations of an elastic medium. The linear propagation of light is its fundamental property, which is not a property of the mechanical waves (acoustic etc.). The Huygens–Fresnel principle is applicable only to the scattered light, as to a wave in the mechanical medium. The unconditional application of this principle has caused in physics the misconceptions within the aetheric theories, at first, and then a false Maxwell's wave equation.

The aether density, which is defined by a magnetic field ("Mass and inertia", 2), is not always the densities sum of the separated aetheric beams according to the superposition principle (see "Magnetism"). Only the straight beams can propagate parallel and opposite to each other without a mutual destruction and a violation of the law of conservation of energy.

The interaction intensity of the physical objects depends also on their density, for example:

Object Magneitc flux density Density Interaction
Light and radio waves < 10–5 T (0,1 G) < 10–21 kg/m3 Electromagnetic beams negligibly weak affect each other because of their nature.
Earth's magnetic field 5·10–5 T (0,5 G) 2·10–20 kg/m3 Magnetic forces.
Field of a permanent magnet 1 T (104 G) 10–11 kg/m3
Air
Water
(average internal field,
according to density)
3·105 T (3·109 G)
1·107 T (1·1011 G)
1 kg/m3
103 kg/m3
Mechanical and optical (refraction, the Fizeau effect) interactions.

The equation of the conservation of "beam flow", or the law of conservation of momentum, or the steady-state continuity equation ("Continuum", 5) is: $\oint{\rho\mathbf{\overrightarrow{v}}\mathrm{d}\mathbf{\overrightarrow{S}}}=div\;\rho\mathbf{\overrightarrow{v}}=0\tag{7}$ The Bernoulli's law for a beam under the uniform pressure without the external forces is the law of conservation of kinetic energy: $\frac{\rho v^2}{2}=const\tag{8}$ The traditional linking of the electromagnetic quantities to the material properties (permeability and permittivity) leads to a double definition of laws for the different domains. The permeability and permittivity are the factors of an integrated (average) beam deceleration in the matter. In general, they are frequency-dependent, nonlinear and anisotropic (expressed by a tensor), what limits theirs application in the fundamental laws. The non-identity relative permeability (permittivity) only applies to the systems of the material particles and to the straight beams. In other cases, it should be 1, as in the vacuum.

Domain
Vacuum (aether) Matter
Material properties $\mu=\varepsilon=1$ $\mu=?\;\;\;\;\;\varepsilon=?$
Velocity $v^2\leq c^2$ $v^2=\frac{c^2}{\mu\varepsilon}$
Bernoulli’s constant arbitrary $\frac{\rho_0c^2}{2}=\mu_0H^2\;\;\;\;\;(SI)$

$\frac{\rho_0c^2}{2}=\frac{H^2}{4\pi}\;\;\;\;\;(CGS)$
$\frac{\rho_0c^2}{2}=H^2c^2\;\;\;\;\;(Sim.)$
$$\rho_0$$ is a density in the vacuum.