Aether theory

Corresponding Wikipedia article: Aether theories

The aether is the intermediator between space and matter, which is available by a mental perception, and it appears indirectly in a form of the observed physical phenomena and the measured physical values. The existence of aether is denied due to its immateriality, and therefore its properties are shared between the properties of space and matter.

The aether fills entire space, and it is the reason for the existence of matter and its laws. The aether is a primary matter or a “pramatter”. The material objects are the clots of condensed aether.

The entire world energy is contained in the aether. Every type of energy is derived from the aetheric energy in the eternal cycle. The using of a clean (free) aetheric energy looks like the perpetual motion.

The main aether manifestation in the everyday life is the forces of inertia and gravity. The aether presses the objects to the ground, and it resists to their acceleration and braking. The aether pressure is almost canceled during the free fall.

The aether is a concept of the ancient Greek and European philosophy. In the Japanese philosophy, the aether corresponds to a supernatural power "mukoku". In the Chinese philosophy, the aether corresponds to the energy “Qi” ("chi"), which fills the empty space "Tai xu". In the Indian philosophy, the aether corresponds to the "Maya", "Prakriti", "prana" and "Akasha", although the last two concepts refer to the spiritual energy.

The great scientists and inventors somehow believed in the aether existence:

• R. Descartes (1596–1650) is a philosopher, one of the algebra founders, creator of the analytic geometry. He considered the light as a linear motion of some rarefied matter[1].
• C. Huygens (1629-1695) is an inventor and a physicist. He considered the light as the movements from one aetheric particle to another.
• R. Hooke (1635–1703) is one of the founders of physics and mechanics. He calculated the gravity equation, the authorship of which is dedicated to Newton solely[2].
• M. Lomonosov (1711–1765) is the author of the kinetic theory, which became a basis of thermodynamics. He explained the gravity as the aetheric pressure[3].
• A.J. Fresnel (1788–1827) is a physicist, who founded the wave theory of light. He considered the aether as an elastic medium.
• M. Faraday (1791–1867) is an inventor and a physicist. He is the discoverer of the electromagnetic induction law and other phenomena. He considered the electromagnetic fields as the special aether conditions.
• H. Helmholtz (1821–1894). is a versatile scientist, who created theories of the physiological perception of color and sound. He considered the aether as an incompressible fluid.
• D. Mendeleev (1834–1907) is a versatile scientist, chemist, economist. The author of the Periodic table. As a chemist, he considered the aether as an ideal gas (Newtonium).
• J.C. Maxwell (1831–1879) is a physicist, who created the classical electrodynamics based on the mechanical analogies. However, he invented the non-existent "displacement current" to prove the electromagnetic waves of Hertz.
• J.J. Thomson (1856-1940) is a physicist, who discovered the electron. The author of an idea about the equivalence of mass and electromagnetic energy.
• Umov N. (1846-1915) is a physicist, who approximately determined the equation of mass and electromagnetic energy[4].
• O. Heaviside (1850–1925) is an engineer and a mathematician, who created the modern electric circuit theory. He is the author of the electromagnetic theory of aether and of the famous formula $$E=mc^2$$, the authorship of which was awarded to Einstein solely.
• N. Tesla (1856–1943) is the great inventor of the various transformers, electrical machines (motors, generators), multi-phase AC power, as well as many less known devices. He is the author of the unpublished physical theories. He is a contemporary of Einstein, who argued with him about the aether existence.

The belief in the aether existence was undermined by the following theoretical physicists despite their merits:

• Newton, a co-author of several mathematical inventions (the Leibniz integral and the binomial theorem, also known to the ancient Indian mathematicians) and of the Galileo's mechanics laws. He called an empirical gravity formula the fundamental law.
• Einstein, an unemployed teacher of physics, who hardly became a patent clerk (an expert on the inventions of others). He is a co-author of the sensational theories of Lorentz, Minkowski etc., which complicatedly explain the obvious nature of the light aberration and of Sagnac's effect, but predict the questionable gravitational waves, black holes, wormholes etc.
• Schrödinger and Dirac, the university teachers, the authors of the formalized theories, which allow existence of the particle’s discrete parameters independently of an interaction with other particles. The Schrödinger equation pretends to explain Mendeleev’s periodic law, but it does not explain this law without introducing an “Aufbau principle” known as the empirical Madelung rule.

The modern published aetheric theories have the delusions, denying the basic aether properties:

• Aether is neither ideal nor real (as believes Atsukowsky W.A.) gas in the full sense of this word, having a temperature etc. In the ancient philosophers views, the aether is a separate element in the same group with the gas (air), plasma (fire), liquid (water) and solid (ground). The aether itself is an empty space, which have neither temperature nor pressure etc.
• Aether is not an elastic continuum, which distributes the mechanical waves like the acoustic waves. The light is a linear aether motion in the form of wave. The real waves exist only in the matter, and they never propagate perfectly linearly within a free space, in contrast to the light rays. The gravitational waves also do not exist.
• Aether provides the fundamental laws of electromagnetism as the nature of light, which differ from the mechanical laws of inertia and gravity. The modern aetheric theories reduce the electromagnetism to a mechanical pressure in any ways, forgetting about a difference between the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions.
• The aetheric particles do not have their own inertial and gravitational mass, but they produce a material mass from the electromagnetic energy. This property is most consistent with the Paramahamsa Tewari's space and with the torsion field particles of A. Akimov and G. Shipov.

The new aether theory assumes the following aetheric materialistic world structure:

Component Categories Objects
Spacetime Geometry, kinematics, field Abstract bodies, rays, fields
Aether (pramatter) Gravity, dynamics, magnetism, electricity, optics Electromagnetic and gravitational fields, vortices, light
Matter Waves, reflection, refraction, dispersion, chemestry, thermodynamics, friction Atoms, moleculas, crystals

The list of physical phenomena explained by the new aether theory:

References

1. Descartes, René (1637). Discourse on Method, Optics, Geometry, and Meteorology.
2. V.I. Arnol'd, Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke: Pioneers in mathematical analysis and catastrophe theory from evolvents to quasicrystalsISBN 3764323833, ISBN 978-3764323837
3. Ломоносов М. В. [Заметки о тяжести тел] / Пер. Я. М. Боровского // Ломоносов М. В. Полное собрание сочинений / АН СССР. — М.; Л., 1950—1983.
Т. 1: Труды по физике и химии, 1738—1746. — М.; Л.: АН СССР, 1950. — С. 237—251.
4. Умов Н. А. Теория простых сред и её приложение к выводу основных законов электростатических и электродинамических взаимодействий. — Одесса, т. 9, 1873.